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Four years of diagnostic challenges with tetrahydrobiopterin deficiencies in Iranian patients


Khatami, Shohreh; Dehnabeh, Soghra Rouhi; Zeinali, Sirous; Thöny, Beat; Alaei, Mohammadreza; Salehpour, Shadab; Setoodeh, Aria; Rohani, Farzaneh; Hajivalizadeh, Fatemeh; Samavat, Ashraf (2016). Four years of diagnostic challenges with tetrahydrobiopterin deficiencies in Iranian patients. JIMD Reports:1-8.

Abstract

Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) is a condition caused by tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiencies. It is essential that differential diagnosis be conducted to distinguish these two causes of HPA, because BH4 deficiency is a more severe disease involving progressive neurologic deterioration. Based on the biological findings, HPA is defined as a plasma phenylalanine level of >2.0 mg/dl (>120 μmol/l). The National Biochemistry Reference Laboratory at the Pasteur Institute of Iran initiated BH4 deficiency screening tests for the first time during the implementation of a nationwide phenylketonuria (PKU) screening program. Measurement of blood phenylalanine and urinary neopterin and biopterin was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography in 617 patients with HPA. Dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) activity was measured in all patients by kinetic spectrophotometry. Differential diagnosis was conducted for PKU, transient HPA, and BH4 deficiencies.Our results indicated that out of 76 cases involving BH4 deficiencies, 37 had 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency, 35 had DHPR deficiency, 1 case had pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) deficiency, and 3 cases had GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) deficiency. In this study, 1 novel deletion mutation and 18 novel missense mutations were reported in addition to mutations that had previously been identified and registered in BIOMDB. At present, the screening program for PKU in Iran includes tests that detect different forms of BH4 deficiency presenting with HPA. Newborns that are BH4-deficient benefit from the availability of the tests because they can receive necessary care before being clinically affected.

Abstract

Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) is a condition caused by tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiencies. It is essential that differential diagnosis be conducted to distinguish these two causes of HPA, because BH4 deficiency is a more severe disease involving progressive neurologic deterioration. Based on the biological findings, HPA is defined as a plasma phenylalanine level of >2.0 mg/dl (>120 μmol/l). The National Biochemistry Reference Laboratory at the Pasteur Institute of Iran initiated BH4 deficiency screening tests for the first time during the implementation of a nationwide phenylketonuria (PKU) screening program. Measurement of blood phenylalanine and urinary neopterin and biopterin was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography in 617 patients with HPA. Dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) activity was measured in all patients by kinetic spectrophotometry. Differential diagnosis was conducted for PKU, transient HPA, and BH4 deficiencies.Our results indicated that out of 76 cases involving BH4 deficiencies, 37 had 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency, 35 had DHPR deficiency, 1 case had pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) deficiency, and 3 cases had GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) deficiency. In this study, 1 novel deletion mutation and 18 novel missense mutations were reported in addition to mutations that had previously been identified and registered in BIOMDB. At present, the screening program for PKU in Iran includes tests that detect different forms of BH4 deficiency presenting with HPA. Newborns that are BH4-deficient benefit from the availability of the tests because they can receive necessary care before being clinically affected.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:26 Jan 2017 16:35
Last Modified:26 Jan 2017 16:35
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:2192-8304
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/8904_2016_572
PubMed ID:27246466

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