Memory formation is a complex cognitive function regulated by coordinated synaptic and nuclear processes in neurons. In mammals, it is controlled by multiple molecular activators and suppressors, including the key signalling regulator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Here, we show that memory control by PP1 involves the miR-183/96/182 cluster and its selective regulation during memory formation. Inhibiting nuclear PP1 in the mouse brain, or training on an object recognition task similarly increases miR-183/96/182 expression in the hippocampus. Mimicking this increase by miR-183/96/182 overexpression enhances object memory, while knocking-down endogenous miR-183/96/182 impairs it. This effect involves the modulation of several plasticity-related genes, with HDAC9 identified as an important functional target. Further, PP1 controls miR-183/96/182 in a transcription-independent manner through the processing of their precursors. These findings provide novel evidence for a role of miRNAs in memory formation and suggest the implication of PP1 in miRNAs processing in the adult brain.