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Preventive strategies against cytomegalovirus and incidence of α-herpesvirus infections in olid-organ transplant recipients: A nationwide cohort study


Martin-Gandul, Cecilia; Stampf, Susanne; Héquet, Delphine; Mueller, Nicolas J; Cusini, Alexia; van Delden, Christian; Khanna, Nina; Boggian, Katia; Hirzel, Cédric; Soccal, Paola; Hirsch, Hans H; Pascual, Manuel; Meylan, Pascal; Manuel, Oriol (2017). Preventive strategies against cytomegalovirus and incidence of α-herpesvirus infections in olid-organ transplant recipients: A nationwide cohort study. American Journal of Transplantation, 17(7):1813-1822.

Abstract

We assessed the impact of antiviral preventive strategies on the incidence of herpes-simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections in a nationwide cohort of transplant recipients. Risk factors for the development of HSV/VZV infection were assessed by Cox PH regression. We included 2781 patients (56% kidney, 20% liver, 10% lung, 7.3% heart, 6.7% others). Overall, 1264 (45%) patients received antiviral prophylaxis [(val)ganciclovir (n=1126) or (val)acyclovir (n=138)]. Incidences for HSV and VZV infections were 28.9 and 12.1 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. Incidence of HSV/VZV infections at 1-year post-transplant was 4.6% (95% CI 3.5-5.8) in patients receiving antiviral prophylaxis vs. 12.3% (95% CI 10.7-14) in patients without prophylaxis; this was particularly observed for HSV infections: 3% (95% CI 2.2-4) vs. 9.8% (95% CI 8.4-11.4), respectively. A lower rate of HSV/VZV infections was also seen in donor or recipient CMV-positive patients receiving (val)ganciclovir prophylaxis as compared to a preemptive approach. Female gender (HR 1.663, p=0.001), HSV seropositivity (HR 5.198, p<0.001), previous episodes of rejection (HR 1.95, p=0.004), and use of a preemptive approach (HR 2.841, p=0.017) were significantly associated with a higher risk for HSV infection. While HSV/VZV infections were common after transplantation, antiviral prophylaxis significantly reduced symptomatic HSV infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Abstract

We assessed the impact of antiviral preventive strategies on the incidence of herpes-simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections in a nationwide cohort of transplant recipients. Risk factors for the development of HSV/VZV infection were assessed by Cox PH regression. We included 2781 patients (56% kidney, 20% liver, 10% lung, 7.3% heart, 6.7% others). Overall, 1264 (45%) patients received antiviral prophylaxis [(val)ganciclovir (n=1126) or (val)acyclovir (n=138)]. Incidences for HSV and VZV infections were 28.9 and 12.1 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. Incidence of HSV/VZV infections at 1-year post-transplant was 4.6% (95% CI 3.5-5.8) in patients receiving antiviral prophylaxis vs. 12.3% (95% CI 10.7-14) in patients without prophylaxis; this was particularly observed for HSV infections: 3% (95% CI 2.2-4) vs. 9.8% (95% CI 8.4-11.4), respectively. A lower rate of HSV/VZV infections was also seen in donor or recipient CMV-positive patients receiving (val)ganciclovir prophylaxis as compared to a preemptive approach. Female gender (HR 1.663, p=0.001), HSV seropositivity (HR 5.198, p<0.001), previous episodes of rejection (HR 1.95, p=0.004), and use of a preemptive approach (HR 2.841, p=0.017) were significantly associated with a higher risk for HSV infection. While HSV/VZV infections were common after transplantation, antiviral prophylaxis significantly reduced symptomatic HSV infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Thoracic Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:26 Jan 2017 10:17
Last Modified:29 Jun 2017 01:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1600-6135
Additional Information:This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: American Journal of Transplantation, 10.1111/ajt.14192, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14192. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving (http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-820227.html#terms).
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14192
PubMed ID:28039960

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