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Quantitative analyses of variability in normal vaginal shape and dimension on MR images


Luo, Jiajia; Betschart, Cornelia; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O L (2016). Quantitative analyses of variability in normal vaginal shape and dimension on MR images. International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, 27(7):1087-1095.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS We present a technique for quantifying inter-individual variability in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimension, and report findings in healthy women.
METHODS Eighty women (age: 28∼70 years) with normal pelvic organ support underwent supine, multi-planar proton-density MRI. Vaginal width was assessed at five evenly-spaced locations, and vaginal axis, length, and surface area were quantified via ImageJ and MATLAB.
RESULTS The mid-sagittal plane angles, relative to the horizontal, of three vaginal axes were 90 ± 11, 72 ± 21, and 41 ± 22° (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). The mean (± SD) vaginal widths were 17 ± 5, 24 ± 4, 30 ± 7, 41 ± 9, and 45 ± 12 mm at the five locations (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). Mid-sagittal lengths for anterior and posterior vaginal walls were 63 ± 9 and 98 ± 18 mm respectively. The vaginal surface area was 72 ± 21 cm(2) (range: 34 ∼ 164 cm(2)). The coefficient of determination between any demographic variable and any vaginal dimension did not exceed 0.16.
CONCLUSIONS Large variations in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimensions were not explained by body size or other demographic variables. This variation has implications for reconstructive surgery, intravaginal and surgical product design, and vaginal drug delivery.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS We present a technique for quantifying inter-individual variability in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimension, and report findings in healthy women.
METHODS Eighty women (age: 28∼70 years) with normal pelvic organ support underwent supine, multi-planar proton-density MRI. Vaginal width was assessed at five evenly-spaced locations, and vaginal axis, length, and surface area were quantified via ImageJ and MATLAB.
RESULTS The mid-sagittal plane angles, relative to the horizontal, of three vaginal axes were 90 ± 11, 72 ± 21, and 41 ± 22° (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). The mean (± SD) vaginal widths were 17 ± 5, 24 ± 4, 30 ± 7, 41 ± 9, and 45 ± 12 mm at the five locations (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). Mid-sagittal lengths for anterior and posterior vaginal walls were 63 ± 9 and 98 ± 18 mm respectively. The vaginal surface area was 72 ± 21 cm(2) (range: 34 ∼ 164 cm(2)). The coefficient of determination between any demographic variable and any vaginal dimension did not exceed 0.16.
CONCLUSIONS Large variations in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimensions were not explained by body size or other demographic variables. This variation has implications for reconstructive surgery, intravaginal and surgical product design, and vaginal drug delivery.

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3 citations in Web of Science®
3 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gynecology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:July 2016
Deposited On:30 Jan 2017 10:10
Last Modified:05 Feb 2017 07:57
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0937-3462
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-016-2949-0
PubMed ID:26811115

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