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Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome: an easily missed diagnosis


Poretti, A; Bartholdi, D; Gobara, S; Alber, F D; Boltshauser, E (2008). Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome: an easily missed diagnosis. European Journal of Medical Genetics, 51(3):197-208.

Abstract

Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (GLHS) is a rare syndrome comprising the triad rhombencephalosynapsis (RS), parietal alopecia, and trigeminal anesthesia. Other typical findings are skull abnormalities, craniofacial dysmorphic signs, and short stature. Intellectual impairment is typical but cases with normal cognitive functions have also been reported. Only 15 cases of GLHS have been described so far, all sporadic. We report four further patients with GLHS: one neonate, two children and a middle aged man. In all cases the diagnosis was made only in retrospect; one child died as neonate due to esophageal atresia. All patients presented RS and parietal alopecia, three intermittent head stereotypies, two had obvious trigeminal anesthesia, and one normal cognition. Alopecia and also trigeminal anesthesia can be very mild and can be easily missed. However, the dysmorphic signs including bilateral alopecia are already present in the neonatal period and are highly suggestive of GLHS. RS should be looked for in this situation. It is important to mention that neuroimaging does not allow distinguishing between isolated RS and GLHS. If RS is diagnosed the clinical signs of GLHS should be sought. The diagnosis of GLHS can only be made by the combination of the typical dysmorphic signs and neuroimaging in the neonatal period, but not prenatally.

Abstract

Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (GLHS) is a rare syndrome comprising the triad rhombencephalosynapsis (RS), parietal alopecia, and trigeminal anesthesia. Other typical findings are skull abnormalities, craniofacial dysmorphic signs, and short stature. Intellectual impairment is typical but cases with normal cognitive functions have also been reported. Only 15 cases of GLHS have been described so far, all sporadic. We report four further patients with GLHS: one neonate, two children and a middle aged man. In all cases the diagnosis was made only in retrospect; one child died as neonate due to esophageal atresia. All patients presented RS and parietal alopecia, three intermittent head stereotypies, two had obvious trigeminal anesthesia, and one normal cognition. Alopecia and also trigeminal anesthesia can be very mild and can be easily missed. However, the dysmorphic signs including bilateral alopecia are already present in the neonatal period and are highly suggestive of GLHS. RS should be looked for in this situation. It is important to mention that neuroimaging does not allow distinguishing between isolated RS and GLHS. If RS is diagnosed the clinical signs of GLHS should be sought. The diagnosis of GLHS can only be made by the combination of the typical dysmorphic signs and neuroimaging in the neonatal period, but not prenatally.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2008
Deposited On:24 Feb 2009 21:15
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:59
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1769-7212
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2008.01.004
PubMed ID:18342593

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