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Tendon collagen crosslinking offers potential to improve suture pullout in rotator cuff repair: an ex vivo sheep study - Zurich Open Repository and Archive


Camenzind, R S; Wieser, K; Fessel, G; Meyer, D C; Snedeker, J G (2016). Tendon collagen crosslinking offers potential to improve suture pullout in rotator cuff repair: an ex vivo sheep study. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 474(8):1778-1785.

Abstract

The suture-tendon interface is often the weakest link in tendon to bone repair of massive rotator cuff tears. Genipin is a low-toxicity collagen crosslinker derived from the gardenia fruit that has been shown to augment collagen tissue strength and mechanically arrest tendon-tear progression.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether genipin crosslinking can sufficiently augment the suture-tendon interface to improve suture pullout strength using simple single-loop sutures and the modified Mason-Allen technique. The study also aimed to assess whether time of genipin treatment is a relevant factor in efficacy.
In an ex vivo (cadaveric) sheep rotator cuff tendon model, a total of 142 suture pullout tests were performed on 32 infraspinatus tendons. Each tendon was prepared with three single-loop stitches. Two groups were pretreated by incubation in genipin solution for either 4 hours or 24 hours. Two corresponding control groups were incubated in phosphate buffered saline for the same periods. The same test protocol was applied to tendons using modified Mason-Allen technique stitch patterns. Each suture was loaded to failure on a universal materials testing machine. Suture pullout force, stiffness, and work to failure were calculated from force-displacement data, and then compared among the groups.
Median single-loop pullout force on tendons incubated for 24 hours in genipin yielded an approximately 30% increase in maximum pullout force for single-loop stitches with a median of 73 N (range, 56-114 N) compared with 56 N (range, 40-69 N; difference of medians = 17 N; p = 0.028), with corresponding increases in the required work to failure but not stiffness. Genipin treatment for 4 hours showed no added benefit for suture-pullout behavior (46 N, [range, 35-95 N] versus 45 N, [range, 28-63 N]; difference of medians, 1 N; p = 1). No tested genipin crosslinking conditions indicated benefit for tendons grasped using the modified Mason-Allen technique after 4 hours (162 N, [range, 143-193 N] versus 140 N, [range, 129-151 N]; difference of medians, 22 N; p = 0.114) or after 24 hours of crosslinking (172 N, [range, 42-183 N] versus 164 N [range, 151-180 N]; difference of medians, 8 N; p = 0.886).
Exogenous collagen crosslinking in genipin can markedly improve resistance to pullout at the tendon-suture interface for simple stitch patterns while the modified Mason-Allen stitch showed no benefit in an ex vivo animal model.
Tendon strength augmentation by genipin pretreatment offers the potential to improve suture retention properties. Future studies are warranted for the development of clinically viable intraoperative delivery strategies and in vivo testing for safety and efficacy.

Abstract

The suture-tendon interface is often the weakest link in tendon to bone repair of massive rotator cuff tears. Genipin is a low-toxicity collagen crosslinker derived from the gardenia fruit that has been shown to augment collagen tissue strength and mechanically arrest tendon-tear progression.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether genipin crosslinking can sufficiently augment the suture-tendon interface to improve suture pullout strength using simple single-loop sutures and the modified Mason-Allen technique. The study also aimed to assess whether time of genipin treatment is a relevant factor in efficacy.
In an ex vivo (cadaveric) sheep rotator cuff tendon model, a total of 142 suture pullout tests were performed on 32 infraspinatus tendons. Each tendon was prepared with three single-loop stitches. Two groups were pretreated by incubation in genipin solution for either 4 hours or 24 hours. Two corresponding control groups were incubated in phosphate buffered saline for the same periods. The same test protocol was applied to tendons using modified Mason-Allen technique stitch patterns. Each suture was loaded to failure on a universal materials testing machine. Suture pullout force, stiffness, and work to failure were calculated from force-displacement data, and then compared among the groups.
Median single-loop pullout force on tendons incubated for 24 hours in genipin yielded an approximately 30% increase in maximum pullout force for single-loop stitches with a median of 73 N (range, 56-114 N) compared with 56 N (range, 40-69 N; difference of medians = 17 N; p = 0.028), with corresponding increases in the required work to failure but not stiffness. Genipin treatment for 4 hours showed no added benefit for suture-pullout behavior (46 N, [range, 35-95 N] versus 45 N, [range, 28-63 N]; difference of medians, 1 N; p = 1). No tested genipin crosslinking conditions indicated benefit for tendons grasped using the modified Mason-Allen technique after 4 hours (162 N, [range, 143-193 N] versus 140 N, [range, 129-151 N]; difference of medians, 22 N; p = 0.114) or after 24 hours of crosslinking (172 N, [range, 42-183 N] versus 164 N [range, 151-180 N]; difference of medians, 8 N; p = 0.886).
Exogenous collagen crosslinking in genipin can markedly improve resistance to pullout at the tendon-suture interface for simple stitch patterns while the modified Mason-Allen stitch showed no benefit in an ex vivo animal model.
Tendon strength augmentation by genipin pretreatment offers the potential to improve suture retention properties. Future studies are warranted for the development of clinically viable intraoperative delivery strategies and in vivo testing for safety and efficacy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:18 April 2016
Deposited On:02 Feb 2017 09:22
Last Modified:03 Feb 2017 04:11
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0009-921X
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-016-4838-8
PubMed ID:27090262

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