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Nickel ion concentrations in the saliva of patients treated with self-ligating fixed appliances: a prospective cohort study


Gölz, Lina; Knickenberg, Anna Christine; Keilig, Ludger; Reimann, Susanne; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph (2016). Nickel ion concentrations in the saliva of patients treated with self-ligating fixed appliances: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics = Fortschritte Der Kieferorthopädie, 77(2):85-93.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Orthodontic appliances are considered to be highly biocompatible although adverse effects attributed to the release of nickel ions (Ni(2+)) have been documented. Self-ligating brackets have grown in popularity for economic reasons and supposed friction reduction. The aim of the present prospective cohort study was therefore to determine salivary Ni(2+) concentrations in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with self-ligating fixed appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS A group of 30 patients between 10 and 13 years of age were treated with self-ligating brackets (SmartClip™), molar bands, and nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected after different time points (before treatment, after self-ligating bracket and band placement, before archwire insertion, after archwire insertion, and finally 4 and 8 weeks afterwards) and analyzed with an ICP mass spectrometer followed by generalized estimating equation modelling with α = 5 %. RESULTS The baseline median salivary Ni(2+) concentration was 21.85 µg/l, while the Ni(2+) concentrations at the following visits ranged between 13.73 and 85.34 µg/l. Significant increases in Ni(2+) levels compared to the baseline levels were detected after band/bracket placement [+59.76 µg/l; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 44.88-74.64 µg/l; P < 0.001] and after archwire insertion (+53.55 µg/l; 95 % CI 25.57-81.52 µg/l; P < 0.001). After 4 weeks, Ni(2+) concentrations returned to initial control levels or were lower. CONCLUSION Self-ligating orthodontic appliances may affect salivary Ni(2+) concentrations in vivo over the short term. However, levels resembled those documented in conjunction with conventional bracket use and remained below the daily dietary Ni intake.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Orthodontic appliances are considered to be highly biocompatible although adverse effects attributed to the release of nickel ions (Ni(2+)) have been documented. Self-ligating brackets have grown in popularity for economic reasons and supposed friction reduction. The aim of the present prospective cohort study was therefore to determine salivary Ni(2+) concentrations in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with self-ligating fixed appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS A group of 30 patients between 10 and 13 years of age were treated with self-ligating brackets (SmartClip™), molar bands, and nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected after different time points (before treatment, after self-ligating bracket and band placement, before archwire insertion, after archwire insertion, and finally 4 and 8 weeks afterwards) and analyzed with an ICP mass spectrometer followed by generalized estimating equation modelling with α = 5 %. RESULTS The baseline median salivary Ni(2+) concentration was 21.85 µg/l, while the Ni(2+) concentrations at the following visits ranged between 13.73 and 85.34 µg/l. Significant increases in Ni(2+) levels compared to the baseline levels were detected after band/bracket placement [+59.76 µg/l; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 44.88-74.64 µg/l; P < 0.001] and after archwire insertion (+53.55 µg/l; 95 % CI 25.57-81.52 µg/l; P < 0.001). After 4 weeks, Ni(2+) concentrations returned to initial control levels or were lower. CONCLUSION Self-ligating orthodontic appliances may affect salivary Ni(2+) concentrations in vivo over the short term. However, levels resembled those documented in conjunction with conventional bracket use and remained below the daily dietary Ni intake.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:March 2016
Deposited On:01 Feb 2017 15:36
Last Modified:01 Apr 2017 00:01
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1434-5293
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00056-016-0012-x
PubMed ID:26910844

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