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Effectiveness of early orthopaedic treatment with headgear: a systematic review and meta-analysis


Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Kutschera, Eric; Memmert, Svenja; Gölz, Lina; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph; Eliades, Theodore (2017). Effectiveness of early orthopaedic treatment with headgear: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Orthodontics, 39(2):176-187.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Although the headgear appliance has been used extensively to correct anteroposterior discrepancies, its treatment effects have not yet been adequately assessed in an evidence-based manner. OBJECTIVE Aim of this systematic review was to assess the therapeutic and adverse effects of early headgear treatment from controlled clinical trials on human patients in an evidence-based manner. SEARCH METHODS An unrestricted electronic search of six databases from inception to December 2015. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized and prospective non-randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of headgear treatment on human patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random-effects meta-analyses of mean differences (MDs) and relative risks (RRs), including their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS A total of 18 unique studies with a total of 930 (56% male/44% female) patients were included. Headgear treatment was associated with a posterior translation of the anterior maxilla border in the short term, as seen by the mean annualized change in the SNA angle (MD = -1.63°/year; 95% CI = -2.20 to -1.06°/year; high quality evidence) compared to untreated patients. This effect was independent of the rotation of the palatal plane and the inclination of the upper incisors, while a proportional relationship with the initial discrepancy in SNA was seen. The clinical significance of this improvement diminished in the long term, although only limited evidence existed. Additionally, early headgear treatment might decrease the risk of dental trauma during the following years (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.80; moderate quality evidence). Low quality evidence on the effect of headgear on the rotation of the palatal plane, the nasolabial angle, the occlusal outcome, and signs of temporomandibular disorders precluded robust assessments, due to risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, and small-study effects. CONCLUSIONS Based on existing trials, headgear is a viable treatment option to modify sagittal growth of the maxilla in the short term in Class II patients with maxillary prognathism. REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42015029837). FUNDING None.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Although the headgear appliance has been used extensively to correct anteroposterior discrepancies, its treatment effects have not yet been adequately assessed in an evidence-based manner. OBJECTIVE Aim of this systematic review was to assess the therapeutic and adverse effects of early headgear treatment from controlled clinical trials on human patients in an evidence-based manner. SEARCH METHODS An unrestricted electronic search of six databases from inception to December 2015. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized and prospective non-randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of headgear treatment on human patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random-effects meta-analyses of mean differences (MDs) and relative risks (RRs), including their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS A total of 18 unique studies with a total of 930 (56% male/44% female) patients were included. Headgear treatment was associated with a posterior translation of the anterior maxilla border in the short term, as seen by the mean annualized change in the SNA angle (MD = -1.63°/year; 95% CI = -2.20 to -1.06°/year; high quality evidence) compared to untreated patients. This effect was independent of the rotation of the palatal plane and the inclination of the upper incisors, while a proportional relationship with the initial discrepancy in SNA was seen. The clinical significance of this improvement diminished in the long term, although only limited evidence existed. Additionally, early headgear treatment might decrease the risk of dental trauma during the following years (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.80; moderate quality evidence). Low quality evidence on the effect of headgear on the rotation of the palatal plane, the nasolabial angle, the occlusal outcome, and signs of temporomandibular disorders precluded robust assessments, due to risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, and small-study effects. CONCLUSIONS Based on existing trials, headgear is a viable treatment option to modify sagittal growth of the maxilla in the short term in Class II patients with maxillary prognathism. REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42015029837). FUNDING None.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:01 Feb 2017 15:47
Last Modified:11 May 2017 00:00
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0141-5387
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjw041
Related URLs:https://academic.oup.com/ejo/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ejo/cjw041
PubMed ID:27169757

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