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Eating at restaurants, at work or at home. Is there a difference? A study among adults of 11 European countries in the context of the HECTOR* project


Orfanos, P; Naska, A; Rodrigues, S; Lopes, C; Freisling, H; Rohrmann, Sabine; Sieri, S; Elmadfa, I; Lachat, C; Gedrich, K; Boeing, H; Katzke, V; Turrini, A; Tumino, R; Ricceri, F; Mattiello, A; Palli, D; Ocké, M; Engeset, D; Oltarzewski, M; Nilsson, L M; Key, T; Trichopoulou, A (2017). Eating at restaurants, at work or at home. Is there a difference? A study among adults of 11 European countries in the context of the HECTOR* project. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(3):407-419.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To compare macronutrient intakes out of home-by location-to those at home and to investigate differences in total daily intakes between individuals consuming more than half of their daily energy out of home and those eating only at home.
SUBJECTS/METHODS Data collected through 24-h recalls or diaries among 23 766 European adults. Participants were grouped as 'non-substantial', 'intermediate' and 'very substantial out-of-home' eaters based on energy intake out of home. Mean macronutrient intakes were estimated at home and out of home (overall, at restaurants, at work). Study/cohort-specific mean differences in total intakes between the 'very substantial out-of-home' and the 'at-home' eaters were estimated through linear regression and pooled estimates were derived.
RESULTS At restaurants, men consumed 29% of their energy as fat, 15% as protein, 45% as carbohydrates and 11% as alcohol. Among women, fat contributed 33% of energy intake at restaurants, protein 16%, carbohydrates 45% and alcohol 6%. When eating at work, both sexes reported 30% of energy from fat and 55% from carbohydrates. Intakes at home were higher in fat and lower in carbohydrates and alcohol. Total daily intakes of the 'very substantial out-of-home' eaters were generally similar to those of individuals eating only at home, apart from lower carbohydrate and higher alcohol intakes among individuals eating at restaurants.
CONCLUSIONS In a large population of adults from 11 European countries, eating at work was generally similar to eating at home. Alcoholic drinks were the primary contributors of higher daily energy intakes among individuals eating substantially at restaurants.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To compare macronutrient intakes out of home-by location-to those at home and to investigate differences in total daily intakes between individuals consuming more than half of their daily energy out of home and those eating only at home.
SUBJECTS/METHODS Data collected through 24-h recalls or diaries among 23 766 European adults. Participants were grouped as 'non-substantial', 'intermediate' and 'very substantial out-of-home' eaters based on energy intake out of home. Mean macronutrient intakes were estimated at home and out of home (overall, at restaurants, at work). Study/cohort-specific mean differences in total intakes between the 'very substantial out-of-home' and the 'at-home' eaters were estimated through linear regression and pooled estimates were derived.
RESULTS At restaurants, men consumed 29% of their energy as fat, 15% as protein, 45% as carbohydrates and 11% as alcohol. Among women, fat contributed 33% of energy intake at restaurants, protein 16%, carbohydrates 45% and alcohol 6%. When eating at work, both sexes reported 30% of energy from fat and 55% from carbohydrates. Intakes at home were higher in fat and lower in carbohydrates and alcohol. Total daily intakes of the 'very substantial out-of-home' eaters were generally similar to those of individuals eating only at home, apart from lower carbohydrate and higher alcohol intakes among individuals eating at restaurants.
CONCLUSIONS In a large population of adults from 11 European countries, eating at work was generally similar to eating at home. Alcoholic drinks were the primary contributors of higher daily energy intakes among individuals eating substantially at restaurants.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:06 Feb 2017 08:02
Last Modified:02 Mar 2017 02:04
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:0954-3007
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.219
PubMed ID:27966568

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