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Early postnatal amylin treatment enhances hypothalamic leptin signaling and neural development in the selectively bred diet-induced obese rat


Johnson, Miranda D; Bouret, Sebastien G; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Boyle, Christina N; Lutz, Thomas A; Levin, Barry E (2016). Early postnatal amylin treatment enhances hypothalamic leptin signaling and neural development in the selectively bred diet-induced obese rat. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 311(6):R1032-R1044.

Abstract

Selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) rats become obese on a high-fat diet and are leptin resistant before becoming obese. Compared with diet-resistant (DR) neonates, DIO neonates have impaired leptin-dependent arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH; from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons) axon outgrowth to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Using phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3) as a surrogate, we show that reduced DIO ARC leptin signaling develops by postnatal day 7 (P7) and is reduced within POMC but not NPY/AgRP neurons. Since amylin increases leptin signaling in adult rats, we treated DIO neonates with amylin during postnatal hypothalamic development and assessed leptin signaling, leptin-dependent ARC-PVN pathway development, and metabolic changes. DIO neonates treated with amylin from P0-6 and from P0-16 increased ARC leptin signaling and both AgRP and α-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development, but increased only POMC neuron number. Despite ARC-PVN pathway correction, P0-16 amylin-induced reductions in body weight did not persist beyond treatment cessation. Since amylin enhances adult DIO ARC signaling via an IL-6-dependent mechanism, we assessed ARC-PVN pathway competency in IL-6 knockout mice and found that the AgRP, but not the α-MSH, ARC-PVN pathway was reduced. These results suggest that both leptin and amylin are important neurotrophic factors for the postnatal development of the ARC-PVN pathway. Amylin might act as a direct neurotrophic factor in DIO rats to enhance both the number of POMC neurons and their α-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development. This suggests important and selective roles for amylin during ARC hypothalamic development.

Abstract

Selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) rats become obese on a high-fat diet and are leptin resistant before becoming obese. Compared with diet-resistant (DR) neonates, DIO neonates have impaired leptin-dependent arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH; from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons) axon outgrowth to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Using phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3) as a surrogate, we show that reduced DIO ARC leptin signaling develops by postnatal day 7 (P7) and is reduced within POMC but not NPY/AgRP neurons. Since amylin increases leptin signaling in adult rats, we treated DIO neonates with amylin during postnatal hypothalamic development and assessed leptin signaling, leptin-dependent ARC-PVN pathway development, and metabolic changes. DIO neonates treated with amylin from P0-6 and from P0-16 increased ARC leptin signaling and both AgRP and α-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development, but increased only POMC neuron number. Despite ARC-PVN pathway correction, P0-16 amylin-induced reductions in body weight did not persist beyond treatment cessation. Since amylin enhances adult DIO ARC signaling via an IL-6-dependent mechanism, we assessed ARC-PVN pathway competency in IL-6 knockout mice and found that the AgRP, but not the α-MSH, ARC-PVN pathway was reduced. These results suggest that both leptin and amylin are important neurotrophic factors for the postnatal development of the ARC-PVN pathway. Amylin might act as a direct neurotrophic factor in DIO rats to enhance both the number of POMC neurons and their α-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development. This suggests important and selective roles for amylin during ARC hypothalamic development.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:AgRP; NPY; POMC; amylin; hypothalamus; leptin
Date:1 December 2016
Deposited On:06 Feb 2017 09:20
Last Modified:12 Feb 2017 08:34
Publisher:American Physiological Society
ISSN:0363-6119
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00326.2016
PubMed ID:27629888

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