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Ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36): Secretory Controls and Physiological Roles in Eating and Glycemia in Health, Obesity, and After RYGB


Steinert, Robert E; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Asarian, Lori; Horowitz, Michael; Beglinger, Christoph; Geary, Nori (2017). Ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36): Secretory Controls and Physiological Roles in Eating and Glycemia in Health, Obesity, and After RYGB. Physiological reviews, 97(1):411-463.

Abstract

The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients. Their physiological roles as classical endocrine and as locally acting signals are discussed. Gastric emptying, the detection of specific digestive products by small intestinal enteroendocrine cells, and synergistic interactions among different GI loci all contribute to the secretion of ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36). While CCK has been fully established as an endogenous endocrine control of eating in healthy-weight persons, the roles of all four hormones in eating in obese persons and following RYGB are uncertain. Similarly, only GLP-1 clearly contributes to the endocrine control of meal-related glycemia. It is likely that local signaling is involved in these hormones' actions, but methods to determine the physiological status of local signaling effects are lacking. Further research and fresh approaches are required to better understand ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36) physiology; their roles in obesity and bariatric surgery; and their therapeutic potentials.

Abstract

The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients. Their physiological roles as classical endocrine and as locally acting signals are discussed. Gastric emptying, the detection of specific digestive products by small intestinal enteroendocrine cells, and synergistic interactions among different GI loci all contribute to the secretion of ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36). While CCK has been fully established as an endogenous endocrine control of eating in healthy-weight persons, the roles of all four hormones in eating in obese persons and following RYGB are uncertain. Similarly, only GLP-1 clearly contributes to the endocrine control of meal-related glycemia. It is likely that local signaling is involved in these hormones' actions, but methods to determine the physiological status of local signaling effects are lacking. Further research and fresh approaches are required to better understand ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36) physiology; their roles in obesity and bariatric surgery; and their therapeutic potentials.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:January 2017
Deposited On:23 Feb 2017 12:51
Last Modified:31 Mar 2017 07:20
Publisher:American Physiological Society
ISSN:0031-9333
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00031.2014
PubMed ID:28003328

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