OBJECTIVE: To identify obstetric and neonatal risk factors associated with the development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) in high-risk preterm neonates.
METHODS AND PATIENTS: Data from 279 preterm infants (246 mothers) with a gestational age≤28+0 weeks admitted to our NICU between January 2004 and December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Occurrence of (GM-IVH) was diagnosed by using ultrasound and important clinical variables were extracted from the patient charts. Infants were divided into 2 groups: GM-IVH and non-GM-IVH. To account for multiple gestation, generalized estimation equations (GEE) were used for univariate analysis and for the evaluation of independent risk factors.
RESULTS: A low 5-min APGAR-Score, multiple birth, low arterial blood pressure at NICU admission, hypercapnia during the first 72 h of life in life and absence of any antenatal corticosteroids were found to be significant independent risk factors in the development of GM-IVH.
CONCLUSION: Preterm infants with low arterial blood pressure, absence of antenatal corticosteroids, low 5-min APGAR-Score, higher paCO2 within the first 3 days of life and multiple gestation were at higher risk to develop GM-IVH. Avoiding these risk factors may help to decrease the rate of GM-IVH.