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Ventriculoatrial shunts in adults, incidence of infection, and significant risk factors: a single-center experience


Al-Schameri, Abdul Rahman; Hamed, Jasmina; Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Winkler, Peter; Machegger, Lukas; Richling, Bernd; Emich, Stephan (2016). Ventriculoatrial shunts in adults, incidence of infection, and significant risk factors: a single-center experience. World Neurosurgery, 94:345-351.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt insertions has decreased worldwide, the major cause being the risk of shunt infection. VA shunts remain as an alternative option to ventriculoperitoneal shunts. We describe our 10-year experience with VA shunts by analyzing the incidence of shunt infections and predisposing cofactors.
METHODS: During a median follow-up of 15.3 months, 259 shunt insertions, performed on 255 patients, were analyzed. The infection rate was calculated and the predisposing cofactors age, gender, cause of the hydrocephalus, previous external ventricle drainage, antibiotic-impregnated catheters, the number of revisions, the educational level of the surgeons, and the duration of the operations were analyzed. Two observation times were stratified.
RESULTS: We found overall infections in 18 patients (7.1%), 16 deep infections (6.3%) including 1 shunt nephritis (0.4%) and 2 superficial infections (0.8%). Wound dehiscence occurred in 17 patients (6. 6%). Analyzing follow-up time, the infection rate was 3.65% (95% confidence interval, 0.9%-5.9%) at survival time 1, 3.38% (95% confidence interval, 1.1%-6.2%) at survival time 2. In the first 6 months, 95% of patients were free of infection. Only the number of revision procedures was associated with the number of infections (P value < 0.0005).
CONCLUSIONS: In our patient cohort, the infection rate related to VA shunt insertion is low; the only statistically significant risk factor was the number of revisions. If the VA shunt is applied following a standardized protocol, the infection risk does not represent an argument for reluctance towards the VA draining concept.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt insertions has decreased worldwide, the major cause being the risk of shunt infection. VA shunts remain as an alternative option to ventriculoperitoneal shunts. We describe our 10-year experience with VA shunts by analyzing the incidence of shunt infections and predisposing cofactors.
METHODS: During a median follow-up of 15.3 months, 259 shunt insertions, performed on 255 patients, were analyzed. The infection rate was calculated and the predisposing cofactors age, gender, cause of the hydrocephalus, previous external ventricle drainage, antibiotic-impregnated catheters, the number of revisions, the educational level of the surgeons, and the duration of the operations were analyzed. Two observation times were stratified.
RESULTS: We found overall infections in 18 patients (7.1%), 16 deep infections (6.3%) including 1 shunt nephritis (0.4%) and 2 superficial infections (0.8%). Wound dehiscence occurred in 17 patients (6. 6%). Analyzing follow-up time, the infection rate was 3.65% (95% confidence interval, 0.9%-5.9%) at survival time 1, 3.38% (95% confidence interval, 1.1%-6.2%) at survival time 2. In the first 6 months, 95% of patients were free of infection. Only the number of revision procedures was associated with the number of infections (P value < 0.0005).
CONCLUSIONS: In our patient cohort, the infection rate related to VA shunt insertion is low; the only statistically significant risk factor was the number of revisions. If the VA shunt is applied following a standardized protocol, the infection risk does not represent an argument for reluctance towards the VA draining concept.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neuroradiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:October 2016
Deposited On:08 Feb 2017 11:01
Last Modified:08 Feb 2017 11:03
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1878-8750
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2016.07.002
PubMed ID:27418531

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