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Management of Tracheo- or Bronchoesophageal Fistula After Ivor-Lewis Esophagectomy


Lambertz, R; Hölscher, A H; Bludau, M; Leers, J M; Gutschow, C; Schröder, W (2016). Management of Tracheo- or Bronchoesophageal Fistula After Ivor-Lewis Esophagectomy. World Journal of Surgery, 40(7):1680-1687.

Abstract

BACKGROUND The development of tracheo- or bronchoesophageal fistula (TBF) after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy remains to be a rare complication associated with a high mortality rate. METHODS In this retrospective study, the charts of patients with TBF after esophagectomy were analyzed in terms of individual patient characteristics, esophagotracheal complications, respiratory function, management, and outcome. RESULTS Between January 2000 and December 2014, 1204 patients underwent Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for esophageal cancer; 13 patients (1.1 %) developed a TBF. In all 13 patients, a concomitant leakage of the intrathoracic esophagogastrostomy was evident, either prior to diagnosis of TBF (metachronous TBF) or simultaneously (synchronous TBF). TBF was predominantly located in the left main bronchus (n = 6, 46.1 %) or trachea (n = 5, 38.5 %). Management of TBF included re-thoracotomy (n = 7), interventional endoscopic (n = 10) or bronchoscopic therapy (n = 4). In the majority of patients (n = 8), management consisted of two subsequent treatment modalities. In 3 out of four patients, TBF was successfully treated by endoscopic stenting only. Five patients (38.5 %) died following a septic course with multiple organ failure. CONCLUSIONS The development of TBF after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy is always combined with anastomotic leakage of the esophagogastrostomy. Treatment options primarily depend on the vascularization of the gastric conduit, the severity of the concomitant aspiration pneumonia, and the volume of the air leakage.

Abstract

BACKGROUND The development of tracheo- or bronchoesophageal fistula (TBF) after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy remains to be a rare complication associated with a high mortality rate. METHODS In this retrospective study, the charts of patients with TBF after esophagectomy were analyzed in terms of individual patient characteristics, esophagotracheal complications, respiratory function, management, and outcome. RESULTS Between January 2000 and December 2014, 1204 patients underwent Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for esophageal cancer; 13 patients (1.1 %) developed a TBF. In all 13 patients, a concomitant leakage of the intrathoracic esophagogastrostomy was evident, either prior to diagnosis of TBF (metachronous TBF) or simultaneously (synchronous TBF). TBF was predominantly located in the left main bronchus (n = 6, 46.1 %) or trachea (n = 5, 38.5 %). Management of TBF included re-thoracotomy (n = 7), interventional endoscopic (n = 10) or bronchoscopic therapy (n = 4). In the majority of patients (n = 8), management consisted of two subsequent treatment modalities. In 3 out of four patients, TBF was successfully treated by endoscopic stenting only. Five patients (38.5 %) died following a septic course with multiple organ failure. CONCLUSIONS The development of TBF after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy is always combined with anastomotic leakage of the esophagogastrostomy. Treatment options primarily depend on the vascularization of the gastric conduit, the severity of the concomitant aspiration pneumonia, and the volume of the air leakage.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Visceral and Transplantation Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:July 2016
Deposited On:14 Feb 2017 15:28
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 23:43
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0364-2313
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3470-9
PubMed ID:26913731

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