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Myofibroblast-derived PDGF-BB promotes Hedgehog survival signaling in cholangiocarcinoma cells


Fingas, Christian D; Bronk, Steven F; Werneburg, Nathan W; Mott, Justin L; Guicciardi, Maria E; Cazanave, Sophie C; Mertens, Joachim C; Sirica, Alphonse E; Gores, Gregory J (2011). Myofibroblast-derived PDGF-BB promotes Hedgehog survival signaling in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Hepatology, 54(6):2076-2088.

Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells paradoxically express the death ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and, therefore, are dependent upon potent survival signals to circumvent TRAIL cytotoxicity. CCAs are also highly desmoplastic cancers with a tumor microenvironment rich in myofibroblasts (MFBs). Herein, we examine a role for MFB-derived CCA survival signals. We employed human KMCH-1, KMBC, HuCCT-1, TFK-1, and Mz-ChA-1 CCA cells, as well as human primary hepatic stellate and myofibroblastic LX-2 cells, for these studies. In vivo experiments were conducted using a syngeneic rat orthotopic CCA model. Coculturing CCA cells with myofibroblastic human primary hepatic stellate cells or LX-2 cells significantly decreased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in CCA cells, a cytoprotective effect abrogated by neutralizing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB antiserum. Cytoprotection by PDGF-BB was dependent upon Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, because it was abolished by the smoothened (SMO; the transducer of Hh signaling) inhibitor, cyclopamine. PDGF-BB induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase-dependent trafficking of SMO to the plasma membrane, resulting in glioma-associated oncogene (GLI)2 nuclear translocation and activation of a consensus GLI reporter gene-based luciferase assay. A genome-wide messenger RNA expression analysis identified 67 target genes to be commonly up- (50 genes) or down-regulated (17 genes) by both Sonic hedgehog and PDGF-BB in a cyclopamine-dependent manner in CCA cells. Finally, in a rodent CCA in vivo model, cyclopamine administration increased apoptosis in CCA cells, resulting in tumor suppression.
CONCLUSIONS MFB-derived PDGF-BB protects CCA cells from TRAIL cytotoxicity by a Hh-signaling-dependent process. These results have therapeutical implications for the treatment of human CCA.

Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells paradoxically express the death ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and, therefore, are dependent upon potent survival signals to circumvent TRAIL cytotoxicity. CCAs are also highly desmoplastic cancers with a tumor microenvironment rich in myofibroblasts (MFBs). Herein, we examine a role for MFB-derived CCA survival signals. We employed human KMCH-1, KMBC, HuCCT-1, TFK-1, and Mz-ChA-1 CCA cells, as well as human primary hepatic stellate and myofibroblastic LX-2 cells, for these studies. In vivo experiments were conducted using a syngeneic rat orthotopic CCA model. Coculturing CCA cells with myofibroblastic human primary hepatic stellate cells or LX-2 cells significantly decreased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in CCA cells, a cytoprotective effect abrogated by neutralizing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB antiserum. Cytoprotection by PDGF-BB was dependent upon Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, because it was abolished by the smoothened (SMO; the transducer of Hh signaling) inhibitor, cyclopamine. PDGF-BB induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase-dependent trafficking of SMO to the plasma membrane, resulting in glioma-associated oncogene (GLI)2 nuclear translocation and activation of a consensus GLI reporter gene-based luciferase assay. A genome-wide messenger RNA expression analysis identified 67 target genes to be commonly up- (50 genes) or down-regulated (17 genes) by both Sonic hedgehog and PDGF-BB in a cyclopamine-dependent manner in CCA cells. Finally, in a rodent CCA in vivo model, cyclopamine administration increased apoptosis in CCA cells, resulting in tumor suppression.
CONCLUSIONS MFB-derived PDGF-BB protects CCA cells from TRAIL cytotoxicity by a Hh-signaling-dependent process. These results have therapeutical implications for the treatment of human CCA.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:German
Date:December 2011
Deposited On:16 Mar 2017 09:27
Last Modified:19 Mar 2017 06:09
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0270-9139
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.24588
PubMed ID:22038837

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