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Urinary incontinence and its association with functional physical and cognitive health among female nursing home residents in Switzerland


Schumpf, Lea F; Theill, Nathan; Scheiner, David A; Fink, Daniel; Riese, Florian; Betschart, Cornelia (2017). Urinary incontinence and its association with functional physical and cognitive health among female nursing home residents in Switzerland. BMC Geriatrics, 17(1):17.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Specific knowledge of urinary incontinence (UI) and its interrelation with physical and cognitive health is essential to working towards prevention of UI and to improving quality of treatment and care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between UI and the activities of daily living (ADL) hierarchy scale, the cognitive performance scale (CPS) and comorbid conditions.

METHODS
The cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 357 nursing homes in Switzerland was based on data of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument 2.0 (RAI-MDS). The analysis examined the effect of ADL hierarchy scale, CPS, joint motion and comorbidities on UI. Women ≥65 years were included (n = 44'811; January 2005 to September 2014) at the time of admission to a nursing home. Statistical analysis was done by means of descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS
The prevalence of UI was 54.7%, the mean ADL hierarchy scale (± SD) 2.42 ± 3.26 (range = 0-6), the mean CPS 1.95 ± 1.67 (range = 0-6). There was a gradual increase in the odds ratio (OR) for UI depending on the ADL hierarchy scale, from the hierarchy scales of "supervised" to "total dependence" of 1.43 - 30.25. For CPS, the OR for UI from "borderline intact" to "very severe impairment" was 1.35 - 5.99. Considering the interaction between ADL and CPS, all ADL hierarchies remained significantly associated with UI, however for CPS this was the case only in the lower hierarchies. Of the 11 examined comorbid conditions, only diabetes mellitus (OR 1.19), dementia (OR 1.01) and arthrosis/arthritis (OR 1.53) were significantly associated with UI.

CONCLUSION
The study indicated that impairment in ADL performance is strongly associated with UI, more than CPS performance and comorbidities. Physical more than cognitive training in order to improve or at least stabilize ADL performance could be a way to prevent or reduce the process of developing UI.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Specific knowledge of urinary incontinence (UI) and its interrelation with physical and cognitive health is essential to working towards prevention of UI and to improving quality of treatment and care. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between UI and the activities of daily living (ADL) hierarchy scale, the cognitive performance scale (CPS) and comorbid conditions.

METHODS
The cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 357 nursing homes in Switzerland was based on data of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument 2.0 (RAI-MDS). The analysis examined the effect of ADL hierarchy scale, CPS, joint motion and comorbidities on UI. Women ≥65 years were included (n = 44'811; January 2005 to September 2014) at the time of admission to a nursing home. Statistical analysis was done by means of descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS
The prevalence of UI was 54.7%, the mean ADL hierarchy scale (± SD) 2.42 ± 3.26 (range = 0-6), the mean CPS 1.95 ± 1.67 (range = 0-6). There was a gradual increase in the odds ratio (OR) for UI depending on the ADL hierarchy scale, from the hierarchy scales of "supervised" to "total dependence" of 1.43 - 30.25. For CPS, the OR for UI from "borderline intact" to "very severe impairment" was 1.35 - 5.99. Considering the interaction between ADL and CPS, all ADL hierarchies remained significantly associated with UI, however for CPS this was the case only in the lower hierarchies. Of the 11 examined comorbid conditions, only diabetes mellitus (OR 1.19), dementia (OR 1.01) and arthrosis/arthritis (OR 1.53) were significantly associated with UI.

CONCLUSION
The study indicated that impairment in ADL performance is strongly associated with UI, more than CPS performance and comorbidities. Physical more than cognitive training in order to improve or at least stabilize ADL performance could be a way to prevent or reduce the process of developing UI.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gynecology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:13 January 2017
Deposited On:04 May 2017 09:00
Last Modified:06 Aug 2017 21:25
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2318
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-017-0414-7
PubMed ID:28086759

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