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Is posture-related craniospinal compliance shift caused by jugular vein collapse? A theoretical analysis


Gehlen, Manuel; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Schmid Daners, Marianne (2017). Is posture-related craniospinal compliance shift caused by jugular vein collapse? A theoretical analysis. Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, 14(1):5.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance distribution. We hypothesized that jugular vein collapse in upright posture is a major contributor to these shifts in CSF volume and compliance. METHODS To test this hypothesis, we implemented a mathematical lumped-parameter model of the CSF system and the relevant parts of the cardiovascular system. In this model, the CSF and the venous system are each divided into a cranial and a spinal part. The pressures in these cranial and spinal portions differ by the posture-dependent hydrostatic pressure columns in the connecting vessels. Jugular collapse is represented by a reduction of the hydrostatic pressure difference between cranial and spinal veins. The CSF pressure-volume relationship is implemented as a function of the local CSF to venous pressure gradient. This implies that an increase in CSF volume leads to a simultaneous displacement of blood from adjacent veins. CSF pulsations driven by the cardiovascular system are introduced through a pulsating cranial arterial volume. RESULTS In upright posture, the implemented CSF pressure-volume relationship shifts to lower cranial CSF pressures compared to the horizontal position, leading to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure when sitting up. Concurrently, the compliance of the spinal compartment decreases while the one of the cranial compartment increases. With this, in upright posture only 10% of the CSF system's compliance is provided by the spinal compartment compared to 35% in horizontal posture. This reduction in spinal compliance is accompanied by a caudal shift of CSF volume. Also, the ability of the spinal CSF compartment to compensate for cerebral arterial volume pulsations reduces in upright posture, which in turn reduces the calculated craniospinal CSF flow pulsations. CONCLUSION The mathematical model enabled us to isolate the effect of jugular collapse and quantify the induced shifts of compliance and CSF volume. The good concordance of the modelled changes with clinically observed values indicates that jugular collapse can be considered a major contributor to CSF dynamics in upright posture.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance distribution. We hypothesized that jugular vein collapse in upright posture is a major contributor to these shifts in CSF volume and compliance. METHODS To test this hypothesis, we implemented a mathematical lumped-parameter model of the CSF system and the relevant parts of the cardiovascular system. In this model, the CSF and the venous system are each divided into a cranial and a spinal part. The pressures in these cranial and spinal portions differ by the posture-dependent hydrostatic pressure columns in the connecting vessels. Jugular collapse is represented by a reduction of the hydrostatic pressure difference between cranial and spinal veins. The CSF pressure-volume relationship is implemented as a function of the local CSF to venous pressure gradient. This implies that an increase in CSF volume leads to a simultaneous displacement of blood from adjacent veins. CSF pulsations driven by the cardiovascular system are introduced through a pulsating cranial arterial volume. RESULTS In upright posture, the implemented CSF pressure-volume relationship shifts to lower cranial CSF pressures compared to the horizontal position, leading to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure when sitting up. Concurrently, the compliance of the spinal compartment decreases while the one of the cranial compartment increases. With this, in upright posture only 10% of the CSF system's compliance is provided by the spinal compartment compared to 35% in horizontal posture. This reduction in spinal compliance is accompanied by a caudal shift of CSF volume. Also, the ability of the spinal CSF compartment to compensate for cerebral arterial volume pulsations reduces in upright posture, which in turn reduces the calculated craniospinal CSF flow pulsations. CONCLUSION The mathematical model enabled us to isolate the effect of jugular collapse and quantify the induced shifts of compliance and CSF volume. The good concordance of the modelled changes with clinically observed values indicates that jugular collapse can be considered a major contributor to CSF dynamics in upright posture.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Physiology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Physiology

04 Faculty of Medicine > Neuroscience Center Zurich
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:16 February 2017
Deposited On:23 May 2017 14:02
Last Modified:06 Aug 2017 23:25
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:2045-8118
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0053-6
PubMed ID:28209177

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