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Change of transfusion and treatment paradigm in major trauma patients


Stein, P; Kaserer, A; Sprengel, K; Wanner, G A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Theusinger, O M; Spahn, D R (2017). Change of transfusion and treatment paradigm in major trauma patients. Anaesthesia:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

Trauma promotes trauma-induced coagulopathy, which requires urgent treatment with fixed-ratio transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates, or goal-directed administration of coagulation factors based on viscoelastic testing. This retrospective observational study compared two time periods before (2005-2007) and after (2012-2014) the implementation of changes in trauma management protocols which included: use of goal-directed coagulation management; admission of patients to designated trauma centres; whole-body computed tomography scanning on admission; damage control surgery; permissive hypotension; restrictive fluid resuscitation; and administration of tranexamic acid. The incidence of massive transfusion (≥ 10 units of red blood cells from emergency department arrival until intensive care unit admission) was compared with the predicted incidence according to the trauma associated severe haemorrhage score. All adult (≥ 16 years) trauma patients primarily admitted to the University Hospital Zürich with an injury severity score ≥ 16 were included. In 2005-2007, the observed and trauma associated severe haemorrhage score that predicted the incidence of massive transfusion were identical, whereas in 2012-2014 the observed incidence was less than half that predicted (3.7% vs. 7.5%). Compared to 2005-2007, the proportion of patients transfused with red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma was significantly lower in 2012-2014 in both the emergency department (43% vs. 17%; 31% vs. 6%, respectively), and after 24 h (53% vs. 27%; 37% vs. 16%, respectively). The use of tranexamic acid and coagulation factor XIII also increased significantly in the 2012-2014 time period. Implementation of a revised trauma management strategy, which included goal-directed coagulation management, was associated with a reduced incidence of massive transfusion and a reduction in the transfusion of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma.

Abstract

Trauma promotes trauma-induced coagulopathy, which requires urgent treatment with fixed-ratio transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates, or goal-directed administration of coagulation factors based on viscoelastic testing. This retrospective observational study compared two time periods before (2005-2007) and after (2012-2014) the implementation of changes in trauma management protocols which included: use of goal-directed coagulation management; admission of patients to designated trauma centres; whole-body computed tomography scanning on admission; damage control surgery; permissive hypotension; restrictive fluid resuscitation; and administration of tranexamic acid. The incidence of massive transfusion (≥ 10 units of red blood cells from emergency department arrival until intensive care unit admission) was compared with the predicted incidence according to the trauma associated severe haemorrhage score. All adult (≥ 16 years) trauma patients primarily admitted to the University Hospital Zürich with an injury severity score ≥ 16 were included. In 2005-2007, the observed and trauma associated severe haemorrhage score that predicted the incidence of massive transfusion were identical, whereas in 2012-2014 the observed incidence was less than half that predicted (3.7% vs. 7.5%). Compared to 2005-2007, the proportion of patients transfused with red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma was significantly lower in 2012-2014 in both the emergency department (43% vs. 17%; 31% vs. 6%, respectively), and after 24 h (53% vs. 27%; 37% vs. 16%, respectively). The use of tranexamic acid and coagulation factor XIII also increased significantly in the 2012-2014 time period. Implementation of a revised trauma management strategy, which included goal-directed coagulation management, was associated with a reduced incidence of massive transfusion and a reduction in the transfusion of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:23 May 2017
Deposited On:06 Jun 2017 10:01
Last Modified:07 Jun 2017 08:03
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0003-2409
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.13920
PubMed ID:28542848

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