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Impact of city police layperson education and equipment with automatic external defibrillators on patient outcome after out of hospital cardiac arrest


Stein, Philipp; Spahn, Gabriela H; Müller, Stefan; Zollinger, Andreas; Baulig, Werner; Brüesch, Martin; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R (2017). Impact of city police layperson education and equipment with automatic external defibrillators on patient outcome after out of hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation, 118:27-34.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurs frequently and the outcome is often dismal. Early defibrillation saves lives and brain function in OHCA. The Zurich city police (STAPO) forces were instructed and equipped to provide basic life support (BLS) and to use an AED in 2009.
METHODS: Retrospective observational study comparing period 1 (P1) 2004-2009 before equipping and training of the STAPO and period 2 (P2) 2010-2015 after the implementation. Patients suffering from OHCA of cardiac or presumed cardiac origin in the city of Zurich undergoing CPR by EMS in P1 (n=709) and P2 (n=684) were included. Intervention periods and outcome were compared between the periods. Outcome variables were adjusted for patient age and gender, witnessed status, and defibrillation by the EMS, STAPO, layperson or no defibrillation.
RESULTS: In P2, CPR was started by the STAPO in a median of 8 (IQR 6-9) minutes after the arrest and thus significantly earlier (median 3min) than by the EMS (p<0.001). STAPO performed the first defibrillation in a median of 9 (IQR 8-10) minutes and thus significantly earlier (median 6min) than the EMS (p<0.001). Outcome improved significantly in P2: proportion of patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, P2 35.8%, P1 24.0%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.2, p<0.001), hospital admission (P2 32.2%, P1 21.4%, OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2, p<0.001) and survival to hospital discharge (P2 13.6%, P1 6.9%, OR 2.1 95% CI 1.5-3.0, p<0.001). If the patient was firstly defibrillated by the STAPO, ROSC (STAPO 74.4%, adj. OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.4, p=0.010) and hospital admission (STAPO 72.1%, adj. OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.6, p=0.005) was higher compared to patients firstly defibrillated by the EMS. Survival to hospital discharge (STAPO 30.2%, adj. OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7-2.9, p=0.38) was unchanged.
CONCLUSION: Dispatching BLS trained and AED equipped police forces results in earlier and more successful resuscitation of OHCA victims, leading to higher proportions of patients with ROSC, hospital admission and survival to hospital discharge.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurs frequently and the outcome is often dismal. Early defibrillation saves lives and brain function in OHCA. The Zurich city police (STAPO) forces were instructed and equipped to provide basic life support (BLS) and to use an AED in 2009.
METHODS: Retrospective observational study comparing period 1 (P1) 2004-2009 before equipping and training of the STAPO and period 2 (P2) 2010-2015 after the implementation. Patients suffering from OHCA of cardiac or presumed cardiac origin in the city of Zurich undergoing CPR by EMS in P1 (n=709) and P2 (n=684) were included. Intervention periods and outcome were compared between the periods. Outcome variables were adjusted for patient age and gender, witnessed status, and defibrillation by the EMS, STAPO, layperson or no defibrillation.
RESULTS: In P2, CPR was started by the STAPO in a median of 8 (IQR 6-9) minutes after the arrest and thus significantly earlier (median 3min) than by the EMS (p<0.001). STAPO performed the first defibrillation in a median of 9 (IQR 8-10) minutes and thus significantly earlier (median 6min) than the EMS (p<0.001). Outcome improved significantly in P2: proportion of patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, P2 35.8%, P1 24.0%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.2, p<0.001), hospital admission (P2 32.2%, P1 21.4%, OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2, p<0.001) and survival to hospital discharge (P2 13.6%, P1 6.9%, OR 2.1 95% CI 1.5-3.0, p<0.001). If the patient was firstly defibrillated by the STAPO, ROSC (STAPO 74.4%, adj. OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.4, p=0.010) and hospital admission (STAPO 72.1%, adj. OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.6, p=0.005) was higher compared to patients firstly defibrillated by the EMS. Survival to hospital discharge (STAPO 30.2%, adj. OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7-2.9, p=0.38) was unchanged.
CONCLUSION: Dispatching BLS trained and AED equipped police forces results in earlier and more successful resuscitation of OHCA victims, leading to higher proportions of patients with ROSC, hospital admission and survival to hospital discharge.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:24 June 2017
Deposited On:14 Aug 2017 12:31
Last Modified:30 Aug 2017 03:05
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0300-9572
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2017.06.017
PubMed ID:28655625

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