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Laughter and Smiling in 16 Positive Emotions


Hofmann, Jennifer; Platt, Tracey; Ruch, Willibald (2017). Laughter and Smiling in 16 Positive Emotions. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

This study investigated the elicitation of smiling and laughter and the role of facial display regulation markers (e.g., down-regulating of a smile or laugh) in positive emotions. In a structured group conversation setting, the frequency and intensity of Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles and laughs when telling memories of 16 positive emotions proposed by Ekman [1] were assessed. Facial responses were coded with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS [2]) and laughter vocalizations were assessed. The results show that smiles and laughs occurred in all 16 positive emotions. Laughter occurred most often in amusement and schadenfreude (laughter occurred in 72% and 71% of the recalled emotion memories respectively). Also, the intensity of the smiles and laughs was higher in amusement and schadenfreude than in the other 14 positive emotions. Furthermore, down-regulated displays (i.e., including facial markers counteracting the upward action of the zygomatic major muscle) resembled Duchenne Displays in their intensity. To summarize, more insight is gained into the facial expression of positive emotions, also highlighting the role of laughter. Also, the importance of assessing regulation markers in joy displays when people are in social settings is stressed.

Abstract

This study investigated the elicitation of smiling and laughter and the role of facial display regulation markers (e.g., down-regulating of a smile or laugh) in positive emotions. In a structured group conversation setting, the frequency and intensity of Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles and laughs when telling memories of 16 positive emotions proposed by Ekman [1] were assessed. Facial responses were coded with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS [2]) and laughter vocalizations were assessed. The results show that smiles and laughs occurred in all 16 positive emotions. Laughter occurred most often in amusement and schadenfreude (laughter occurred in 72% and 71% of the recalled emotion memories respectively). Also, the intensity of the smiles and laughs was higher in amusement and schadenfreude than in the other 14 positive emotions. Furthermore, down-regulated displays (i.e., including facial markers counteracting the upward action of the zygomatic major muscle) resembled Duchenne Displays in their intensity. To summarize, more insight is gained into the facial expression of positive emotions, also highlighting the role of laughter. Also, the importance of assessing regulation markers in joy displays when people are in social settings is stressed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:07 Sep 2017 13:44
Last Modified:14 Sep 2017 12:04
Publisher:Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISSN:1949-3045
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1109/TAFFC.2017.2737000

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