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The role of phenotypic plasticity on population differentiation


Schmid, M; Guillaume, F (2017). The role of phenotypic plasticity on population differentiation. Heredity, 119(4):214-225.

Abstract

Several evolutionary processes shape the genetic and phenotypic differentiation of populations. Among them, the joint effects of gene flow, selection and phenotypic plasticity are poorly known, especially when trying to understand how maladaptive plasticity affects population divergence. We extended a quantitative genetic model of Hendry et al. (2001) to describe these joint effects on phenotypic and additive genetic divergence between two populations, and their phenotypic and genetic differentiation (PST and QST). With individual-based simulations, we tested our model predictions and further modeled allelic differentiation at neutral (FST) and adaptive (FSTQ) loci. While adaptive phenotypic plasticity allows for large phenotypic divergence and differentiation despite high gene flow, maladaptive plasticity promotes genetic divergence and generates countergradient variation, under extensive migration with phenotypic differences sometimes opposed to genetic differences. Maladaptive plasticity can also promote adaptive phenotypic divergence by reducing the effective gene flow. Overall, plasticity decouples genetic from phenotypic differences between populations, and blurs the correlation between phenotypic divergence and local adaptation. By deriving models of population differentiation for three different life cycles, we further describe the effect of a species' ecology on evolution in structured populations.Heredity advance online publication, 26 July 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2017.36.

Abstract

Several evolutionary processes shape the genetic and phenotypic differentiation of populations. Among them, the joint effects of gene flow, selection and phenotypic plasticity are poorly known, especially when trying to understand how maladaptive plasticity affects population divergence. We extended a quantitative genetic model of Hendry et al. (2001) to describe these joint effects on phenotypic and additive genetic divergence between two populations, and their phenotypic and genetic differentiation (PST and QST). With individual-based simulations, we tested our model predictions and further modeled allelic differentiation at neutral (FST) and adaptive (FSTQ) loci. While adaptive phenotypic plasticity allows for large phenotypic divergence and differentiation despite high gene flow, maladaptive plasticity promotes genetic divergence and generates countergradient variation, under extensive migration with phenotypic differences sometimes opposed to genetic differences. Maladaptive plasticity can also promote adaptive phenotypic divergence by reducing the effective gene flow. Overall, plasticity decouples genetic from phenotypic differences between populations, and blurs the correlation between phenotypic divergence and local adaptation. By deriving models of population differentiation for three different life cycles, we further describe the effect of a species' ecology on evolution in structured populations.Heredity advance online publication, 26 July 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2017.36.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Language:English
Date:26 July 2017
Deposited On:12 Sep 2017 14:11
Last Modified:14 Sep 2017 01:03
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:0018-067X
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2017.36
PubMed ID:28745716

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