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Endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transitions upon herpes virus infection


Wild, Peter; Kaech, Andres; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Walser, Ladina; Ackermann, Mathias (2017). Endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transitions upon herpes virus infection. F1000Research, 6:1804.

Abstract

Background: Herpesvirus capsids are assembled in the nucleus before they are translocated to the perinuclear space by budding, acquiring tegument and envelope, or releasing to the cytoplasm in a “naked” state via impaired nuclear envelope. One model proposes that envelopment, “de-envelopment” and “re-envelopment” are essential steps for production of infectious virus. Glycoproteins gB/gH were reported to be essential for de-envelopment, by fusion of the “primary” envelope with the outer nuclear membrane. Yet, a high proportion of enveloped virions generated from genomes with deleted gB/gH were found in the cytoplasm and extracellular space, suggesting the existence of an alternative exit route.
Methods: We investigated the relatedness between the nuclear envelope and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, in cells infected with either herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) or a Us3 deletion mutant thereof, or with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, employing freezing technique protocols that lead to improved spatial and temporal resolution.
Results: Scanning electron microscopy showed the Golgi complex as a compact entity in a juxtanuclear position covered by a membrane on the cis face. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Golgi membranes merge with membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum forming an entity with the perinuclear space. All compartments contained enveloped virions. After treatment with brefeldin A, HSV-1 virions aggregated in the perinuclear space and endoplasmic reticulum, while infectious progeny virus was still produced. Conclusions: The data strongly suggest that virions are intraluminally transported from the perinuclear space via Golgi complex-endoplasmic reticulum transitions into Golgi cisternae for packaging into transport vacuoles. Furthermore, virions derived by budding at nuclear membranes are infective as has been shown for HSV-1 Us3 deletion mutants, which almost entirely accumulate in the perinuclear space. Therefore, de-envelopment followed by re-envelopment is not essential for production of infective progeny virus.

Abstract

Background: Herpesvirus capsids are assembled in the nucleus before they are translocated to the perinuclear space by budding, acquiring tegument and envelope, or releasing to the cytoplasm in a “naked” state via impaired nuclear envelope. One model proposes that envelopment, “de-envelopment” and “re-envelopment” are essential steps for production of infectious virus. Glycoproteins gB/gH were reported to be essential for de-envelopment, by fusion of the “primary” envelope with the outer nuclear membrane. Yet, a high proportion of enveloped virions generated from genomes with deleted gB/gH were found in the cytoplasm and extracellular space, suggesting the existence of an alternative exit route.
Methods: We investigated the relatedness between the nuclear envelope and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, in cells infected with either herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) or a Us3 deletion mutant thereof, or with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, employing freezing technique protocols that lead to improved spatial and temporal resolution.
Results: Scanning electron microscopy showed the Golgi complex as a compact entity in a juxtanuclear position covered by a membrane on the cis face. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Golgi membranes merge with membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum forming an entity with the perinuclear space. All compartments contained enveloped virions. After treatment with brefeldin A, HSV-1 virions aggregated in the perinuclear space and endoplasmic reticulum, while infectious progeny virus was still produced. Conclusions: The data strongly suggest that virions are intraluminally transported from the perinuclear space via Golgi complex-endoplasmic reticulum transitions into Golgi cisternae for packaging into transport vacuoles. Furthermore, virions derived by budding at nuclear membranes are infective as has been shown for HSV-1 Us3 deletion mutants, which almost entirely accumulate in the perinuclear space. Therefore, de-envelopment followed by re-envelopment is not essential for production of infective progeny virus.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Virology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:19 Oct 2017 12:49
Last Modified:09 Dec 2017 02:44
Publisher:Faculty of 1000 Ltd.
ISSN:2046-1402
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.12252.1

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