PURPOSE To evaluate in a prospective study the possibility of visualization and diagnostic assessment of the recurrent motor branch (RMB) of the median nerve with high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS HRUS with high-frequency probes (18-22 MhZ) was used to locate the RMB in eight fresh cadaveric hands. To verify correct identification, ink-marking and consecutive dissection were performed. Measurement of the RMB maximum transverse-diameter, an evaluation of the origin from the median nerve and its course in relation to the transverse carpal ligament, was performed in both hands of ten healthy volunteers (n = 20). Cases referred for HRUS examinations for suspected RMB lesions were also assessed. RESULTS The RMB was clearly visible in all anatomical specimens and all volunteers. Dissection confirmed HRUS findings in all anatomical specimens. Mean RMB diameter in volunteers was 0.7 mm ± 0.1 (range, 0.6-1). The RMB originated from the radial aspect in 11 (55%), central aspect in eight (40%) and ulnar aspect in one (5%) hand. Nineteen (95%) extraligamentous courses and one (5%) subligamentous course were detected. Three patients with visible RMB abnormalities on HRUS were identified. CONCLUSION HRUS is able to reliably visualize the RMB, its variations and pathologies. KEY POINTS • Ultrasound allows visualization of the recurrent motor branch of the median nerve. • Ultrasound may help clinicians to assess patients with recurrent motor branch pathologies. • Patient management may become more appropriate and targeted therapy could be improved.