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Antiretrovirals, fractures, and osteonecrosis in a large international HIV cohort


Abstract

Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes.
Methods: EuroSIDA participants were followed to assess fractures and osteonecrosis. Poisson regression identified clinical, laboratory and demographic predictors of either bone outcome. Ever, current, and cumulative exposures to ARVs were assessed.
Results: During 86118 PYFU among 11820 included persons (median age 41y, 75% male, median baseline CD4 440/mm3, 70.4% virologically suppressed), there were 619 fractures (incidence/1000 PYFU 7.2; 95% CI 6.6-7.7) and 89 osteonecrosis (1.0; 0.8-1.3). Older age, white race, lower BMI, IV drug use, lower baseline CD4, HCV coinfection, prior osteonecrosis, prior fracture, cardiovascular disease, and recent non-AIDS cancer (last 12 months) were associated with fractures. After adjustment, persons who had ever used tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (1.40; 1.15-1.70) or who were currently on TDF (1.25; 1.05-1.49) had higher incidence of fractures. There was no association between cumulative exposure to TDF and fractures (1.08/5 y exposure; 0.94-1.25). No other ARV was associated with fractures (all P > .1). Risk of osteonecrosis was associated with white race, lower nadir CD4, prior osteonecrosis, prior fracture, and prior AIDS. After mutual adjustment, no ARV was associated with osteonecrosis.
Conclusions: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, host factors, HIV-specific variables, and comorbidities contribute to risk of fractures and osteonecrosis. Exposure to TDF, but not other ARVs, was an independent risk factor for fractures.

Abstract

Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes.
Methods: EuroSIDA participants were followed to assess fractures and osteonecrosis. Poisson regression identified clinical, laboratory and demographic predictors of either bone outcome. Ever, current, and cumulative exposures to ARVs were assessed.
Results: During 86118 PYFU among 11820 included persons (median age 41y, 75% male, median baseline CD4 440/mm3, 70.4% virologically suppressed), there were 619 fractures (incidence/1000 PYFU 7.2; 95% CI 6.6-7.7) and 89 osteonecrosis (1.0; 0.8-1.3). Older age, white race, lower BMI, IV drug use, lower baseline CD4, HCV coinfection, prior osteonecrosis, prior fracture, cardiovascular disease, and recent non-AIDS cancer (last 12 months) were associated with fractures. After adjustment, persons who had ever used tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (1.40; 1.15-1.70) or who were currently on TDF (1.25; 1.05-1.49) had higher incidence of fractures. There was no association between cumulative exposure to TDF and fractures (1.08/5 y exposure; 0.94-1.25). No other ARV was associated with fractures (all P > .1). Risk of osteonecrosis was associated with white race, lower nadir CD4, prior osteonecrosis, prior fracture, and prior AIDS. After mutual adjustment, no ARV was associated with osteonecrosis.
Conclusions: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, host factors, HIV-specific variables, and comorbidities contribute to risk of fractures and osteonecrosis. Exposure to TDF, but not other ARVs, was an independent risk factor for fractures.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:HIV., avascular necrosis, bone, fractures, osteonecrosis
Language:English
Date:15 May 2017
Deposited On:04 Dec 2017 16:36
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 09:28
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1058-4838
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix167
PubMed ID:28329090

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