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Temporal trends and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection in the Swiss surveillance network: a cohort study


Abbas, M; Aghayev, E; Troillet, Nicolas; Eisenring, Marie-Christine; Kuster, S P; Widmer, A F; Harbarth, Stephan; SwissNoso (2018). Temporal trends and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection in the Swiss surveillance network: a cohort study. Journal of Hospital Infection, 98(2):118-126.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen in surgical site infections (SSI).
AIM: To explore trends and risk factors associated with S. aureus SSI.
METHODS: Risk factors for monomicrobial S. aureus SSI were identified from the Swiss multi-centre SSI surveillance system using multi-variate logistic regression. Both in-hospital and postdischarge SSI were identified using standardized definitions.
FINDINGS: Over a six-year period, data were collected on 229,765 surgical patients, of whom 499 (0.22%) developed monomicrobial S. aureus SSI; 459 (92.0%) and 40 (8.0%) were due to meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), respectively. There was a significant decrease in the rate of MSSA SSI (P = 0.007), but not in the rate of MRSA SSI (P = 0.70). Independent protective factors for S. aureus SSI were older age [≥75 years vs <50 years: odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.83], laparoscopy/minimally invasive surgery (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.92), non-clean surgery [OR 0.78 (per increase in wound contamination class), 95% CI 0.64-0.94] and correct timing of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98). Independent risk factors were male sex (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.66), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists' score (per one-point increment: OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.51), re-operation for non-infectious reasons (OR 4.59, 95% CI 3.59-5.87) and procedure type: cardiac surgery, laminectomy, and hip or knee arthroplasty had two-to nine-fold increased odds of S. aureus SSI compared with other procedures.
CONCLUSIONS: SSI due to S. aureus are decreasing and becoming rare events in Switzerland. High-risk procedures that may benefit from specific preventive measures were identified. Unfortunately, many of the independent risk factors are not easily modifiable.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen in surgical site infections (SSI).
AIM: To explore trends and risk factors associated with S. aureus SSI.
METHODS: Risk factors for monomicrobial S. aureus SSI were identified from the Swiss multi-centre SSI surveillance system using multi-variate logistic regression. Both in-hospital and postdischarge SSI were identified using standardized definitions.
FINDINGS: Over a six-year period, data were collected on 229,765 surgical patients, of whom 499 (0.22%) developed monomicrobial S. aureus SSI; 459 (92.0%) and 40 (8.0%) were due to meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), respectively. There was a significant decrease in the rate of MSSA SSI (P = 0.007), but not in the rate of MRSA SSI (P = 0.70). Independent protective factors for S. aureus SSI were older age [≥75 years vs <50 years: odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.83], laparoscopy/minimally invasive surgery (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.92), non-clean surgery [OR 0.78 (per increase in wound contamination class), 95% CI 0.64-0.94] and correct timing of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98). Independent risk factors were male sex (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.66), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists' score (per one-point increment: OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.51), re-operation for non-infectious reasons (OR 4.59, 95% CI 3.59-5.87) and procedure type: cardiac surgery, laminectomy, and hip or knee arthroplasty had two-to nine-fold increased odds of S. aureus SSI compared with other procedures.
CONCLUSIONS: SSI due to S. aureus are decreasing and becoming rare events in Switzerland. High-risk procedures that may benefit from specific preventive measures were identified. Unfortunately, many of the independent risk factors are not easily modifiable.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cohort study; Risk factors; Staphylococcus aureus; Surgical site infection; Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:04 Dec 2017 17:35
Last Modified:20 Feb 2018 08:57
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0195-6701
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2017.09.025
PubMed ID:28988937

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