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Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery


Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric (2018). Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 56(2):341-349.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown.
METHODS: We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries <80% or >120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference.
RESULTS: A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between <10% and 80%. In a follow-up study of 212 random plasma samples we found seven samples with autoantibodies against PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery.
CONCLUSIONS: About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown.
METHODS: We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries <80% or >120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference.
RESULTS: A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between <10% and 80%. In a follow-up study of 212 random plasma samples we found seven samples with autoantibodies against PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery.
CONCLUSIONS: About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Urological Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:autoantibodies; heterophilic antibodies; immunoassay; prostate-specific antigen (PSA); prostate; recovery
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:05 Dec 2017 16:16
Last Modified:20 Feb 2018 08:57
Publisher:De Gruyter
ISSN:1434-6621
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2017-0246
PubMed ID:28763294

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Embargo till: 2018-08-01