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Early virological failure and HIV drug resistance in Ugandan adults co-infected with tuberculosis


von Braun, Amrei; Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Christine; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Magambo, Brian; Kambugu, Andrew; Fehr, Jan; Castelnuovo, Barbara (2017). Early virological failure and HIV drug resistance in Ugandan adults co-infected with tuberculosis. AIDS Research and Therapy, 14(1):1.

Abstract

PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study took place in the integrated tuberculosis (TB) clinic of a large outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of TB/HIV co-infected adults with virological failure, type and frequency of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, and the proportion of patients with suboptimal efavirenz levels.
METHODS: HIV-1 plasma viral loads, CD4 cell count measurements, and efavirenz serum concentrations were done in TB/HIV co-infected adults. Genotypic resistance testing was performed in case of confirmed virological failure.
RESULTS: After a median time on ART of 6 months, virological failure was found in 22/152 patients (14.5%). Of 147 participants with available efavirenz serum concentration, 26 (17.6%) had at least one value below the reference range, including 20/21 (95.2%) patients with confirmed virological failure. Genotypic resistance testing was available for 16/22 (72.7%) patients, of which 15 (93.8%) had at least one major mutation, most commonly M184V (81.2%) and K103NS (68.8%).
CONCLUSION: We found a high proportion of TB/HIV co-infected patients with virological failure, the majority of which had developed relevant resistance-mutations after a median time on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of 6 months. Virological monitoring should be prioritized in TB/HIV co-infected patients in resource-limited settings.

Abstract

PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study took place in the integrated tuberculosis (TB) clinic of a large outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of TB/HIV co-infected adults with virological failure, type and frequency of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, and the proportion of patients with suboptimal efavirenz levels.
METHODS: HIV-1 plasma viral loads, CD4 cell count measurements, and efavirenz serum concentrations were done in TB/HIV co-infected adults. Genotypic resistance testing was performed in case of confirmed virological failure.
RESULTS: After a median time on ART of 6 months, virological failure was found in 22/152 patients (14.5%). Of 147 participants with available efavirenz serum concentration, 26 (17.6%) had at least one value below the reference range, including 20/21 (95.2%) patients with confirmed virological failure. Genotypic resistance testing was available for 16/22 (72.7%) patients, of which 15 (93.8%) had at least one major mutation, most commonly M184V (81.2%) and K103NS (68.8%).
CONCLUSION: We found a high proportion of TB/HIV co-infected patients with virological failure, the majority of which had developed relevant resistance-mutations after a median time on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of 6 months. Virological monitoring should be prioritized in TB/HIV co-infected patients in resource-limited settings.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Efavirenz; HIV drug resistance; Treatment monitoring; Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection; Virological failure
Language:English
Date:5 January 2017
Deposited On:05 Dec 2017 15:28
Last Modified:10 Jan 2018 04:09
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1742-6405
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12981-016-0128-5
Related URLs:http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/144535/
PubMed ID:28086929

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