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Observability of forming planets and their circumplanetary disks I. – parameter study for ALMA


Szulágyi, J; van der Plas, G; Tamburello, V; Pohl, A; Mayer, L; Quanz, S P; Daemgen, S; Meyer, M R (2017). Observability of forming planets and their circumplanetary disks I. – parameter study for ALMA. arXiv.org 1709.04438, University of Zurich.

Abstract

We present mock observations of forming planets with ALMA. The possible detections of circumplanetary disks (CPDs) were investigated around planets of Saturn, 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-masses that are placed at 5.2 AU from their star. The radiative, three dimensional hydrodynamic simulations were then post-processed with RADMC3D and the ALMA Observation Simulator. We found that even though the CPDs are too small to be resolved, they are hot due to the accreting planet in the optically thick limit, therefore the best chance to detect them with continuum observations in this case is at the shortest ALMA wavelengths, such as Band 9 (440 microns). Similar fluxes were found in the case of Saturn and Jupiter-mass planets, as for the 10 MJup gas-giant, due to temperature weighted optical depth effects: when no deep gap is carved, the planet region is blanketed by the optically thick circumstellar disk leading to a less efficient cooling there. A test was made for a 52 AU orbital separation, showed that optically thin CPDs are also detectable in band 7 but they need longer integration times (>5hrs). Comparing the gap profiles of the same simulation at various ALMA bands and the hydro simulation confirmed that they change significantly, first because the gap is wider at longer wavelengths due to decreasing optical depth; second, the beam convolution makes the gap shallower and at least 25% narrower. Therefore, caution has to be made when estimating planet masses based on ALMA continuum observations of gaps.

Abstract

We present mock observations of forming planets with ALMA. The possible detections of circumplanetary disks (CPDs) were investigated around planets of Saturn, 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-masses that are placed at 5.2 AU from their star. The radiative, three dimensional hydrodynamic simulations were then post-processed with RADMC3D and the ALMA Observation Simulator. We found that even though the CPDs are too small to be resolved, they are hot due to the accreting planet in the optically thick limit, therefore the best chance to detect them with continuum observations in this case is at the shortest ALMA wavelengths, such as Band 9 (440 microns). Similar fluxes were found in the case of Saturn and Jupiter-mass planets, as for the 10 MJup gas-giant, due to temperature weighted optical depth effects: when no deep gap is carved, the planet region is blanketed by the optically thick circumstellar disk leading to a less efficient cooling there. A test was made for a 52 AU orbital separation, showed that optically thin CPDs are also detectable in band 7 but they need longer integration times (>5hrs). Comparing the gap profiles of the same simulation at various ALMA bands and the hydro simulation confirmed that they change significantly, first because the gap is wider at longer wavelengths due to decreasing optical depth; second, the beam convolution makes the gap shallower and at least 25% narrower. Therefore, caution has to be made when estimating planet masses based on ALMA continuum observations of gaps.

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Item Type:Working Paper
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Language:English
Date:February 2017
Deposited On:09 Jan 2018 22:05
Last Modified:19 Mar 2018 09:26
Series Name:arXiv.org
ISSN:2331-8422
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Official URL. An embargo period may apply.
Official URL:https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.04438
Related URLs:https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.04438 (Publisher)

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