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Nitrous Oxide 70% for Procedural Analgosedation in a Pediatric Emergency Department With or Without Intranasal Fentanyl?: Analgesic Efficacy and Adverse Events if Combined With Intranasal Fentanyl


Seiler, Michelle; Landolt, Markus A; Staubli, Georg (2017). Nitrous Oxide 70% for Procedural Analgosedation in a Pediatric Emergency Department With or Without Intranasal Fentanyl?: Analgesic Efficacy and Adverse Events if Combined With Intranasal Fentanyl. Pediatric Emergency Care:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Nitrous oxide 70% (N20 70%) is an excellent medication for procedural analgosedation in a pediatric emergency department. However, its analgesic efficacy remains uncertain for painful procedures; therefore, a combination with intranasal fentanyl (INF), an opioid, was suggested. This study aimed at observing and assessing the analgesic efficacy and rate of adverse events using N20 70% with and without INF.

METHODS: Children who received N20 70% in a tertiary children's hospital emergency department from January 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 were included in this observational study with prospective data collection. Physicians decided individually whether INF was administered. Medical staff documented the child's behavior during the procedure, adverse events, and satisfaction rate.

RESULTS: A total of 442 children were included; 206 (46.6%) received INF. Group differences regarding patient behavior were not statistically significant; however, N20 70% application time was longer in the INF group (P = .02). Nausea was the most frequent adverse event with 13.1% in the INF group versus 8.1% without INF. Inadequate procedural analgosedation was documented only in the INF group, affecting 1.8% of all patients (P = .002). In contrast, anxiety was exclusively observed in the group without INF, which was presumably misjudged pain (P = .03); the satisfaction rate in the INF group was 95.6% compared with 98.7% without INF.

CONCLUSIONS: Because of the study design and limitations, no conclusions about adding INF to N20 70% can be made. Additional research is needed to investigate the effect of combining N20 70% with INF.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Nitrous oxide 70% (N20 70%) is an excellent medication for procedural analgosedation in a pediatric emergency department. However, its analgesic efficacy remains uncertain for painful procedures; therefore, a combination with intranasal fentanyl (INF), an opioid, was suggested. This study aimed at observing and assessing the analgesic efficacy and rate of adverse events using N20 70% with and without INF.

METHODS: Children who received N20 70% in a tertiary children's hospital emergency department from January 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 were included in this observational study with prospective data collection. Physicians decided individually whether INF was administered. Medical staff documented the child's behavior during the procedure, adverse events, and satisfaction rate.

RESULTS: A total of 442 children were included; 206 (46.6%) received INF. Group differences regarding patient behavior were not statistically significant; however, N20 70% application time was longer in the INF group (P = .02). Nausea was the most frequent adverse event with 13.1% in the INF group versus 8.1% without INF. Inadequate procedural analgosedation was documented only in the INF group, affecting 1.8% of all patients (P = .002). In contrast, anxiety was exclusively observed in the group without INF, which was presumably misjudged pain (P = .03); the satisfaction rate in the INF group was 95.6% compared with 98.7% without INF.

CONCLUSIONS: Because of the study design and limitations, no conclusions about adding INF to N20 70% can be made. Additional research is needed to investigate the effect of combining N20 70% with INF.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Date:3 July 2017
Deposited On:21 Dec 2017 13:48
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 09:50
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0749-5161
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001213
PubMed ID:29112108

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