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Beyond detoxification: a role for mouse mEH in the hepatic metabolism of endogenous lipids


Marowsky, Anne; Meyer, Imke; Erismann-Ebner, Kira; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Mule, Nandkishor; Arand, Michael (2017). Beyond detoxification: a role for mouse mEH in the hepatic metabolism of endogenous lipids. Archives of toxicology, 91(11):3571-3585.

Abstract

Microsomal and soluble epoxide hydrolase (mEH and sEH) fulfill apparently distinct roles: Whereas mEH detoxifies xenobiotics, sEH hydrolyzes fatty acid (FA) signaling molecules and is thus implicated in a variety of physiological functions. These epoxy FAs comprise epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and epoxy-octadecenoic acids (EpOMEs), which are formed by CYP epoxygenases from arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid, respectively, and then are hydrolyzed to their respective diols, the so-called DHETs and DiHOMEs. Although EETs and EpOMEs are also substrates for mEH, its role in lipid signaling is considered minor due to lower abundance and activity relative to sEH. Surprisingly, we found that in plasma from mEH KO mice, hydrolysis rates for 8,9-EET and 9,10-EpOME were reduced by 50% compared to WT plasma. This strongly suggests that mEH contributes substantially to the turnover of these FA epoxides-despite kinetic parameters being in favor of sEH. Given the crucial role of liver in controlling plasma diol levels, we next studied the capacity of sEH and mEH KO liver microsomes to synthesize DHETs with varying concentrations of AA (1-30 μM) and NADPH. mEH-generated DHET levels were similar to the ones generated by sEH, when AA concentrations were low (1 μM) or epoxygenase activity was curbed by modulating NADPH. With increasing AA concentrations sEH became more dominant and with 30 μM AA produced twice the level of DHETs compared to mEH. Immunohistochemistry of C57BL/6 liver slices further revealed that mEH expression was more widespread than sEH expression. mEH immunoreactivity was detected in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, and bile duct epithelial cells, while sEH immunoreactivity was confined to hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells. Finally, transcriptome analysis of WT, mEH KO, and sEH KO liver was carried out to discern transcriptional changes associated with the loss of EH genes along the CYP-epoxygenase-EH axis. We found several prominent dysregulations occurring in a parallel manner in both KO livers: (a) gene expression of Ephx1 (encoding for mEH protein) was increased 1.35-fold in sEH KO, while expression of Ephx2 (encoding for sEH protein) was increased 1.4-fold in mEH KO liver; (b) Cyp2c genes, encoding for the predominant epoxygenases in mouse liver, were mostly dysregulated in the same manner in both sEH and mEH KO mice, showing that loss of either EH has a similar impact. Taken together, mEH appears to play a leading role in the hydrolysis of 8,9-EET and 9,10-EpOME and also contributes to the hydrolysis of other FA epoxides. It probably profits from its high affinity for FA epoxides under non-saturating conditions and its close physical proximity to CYP epoxygenases, and compensates its lower abundance by a more widespread expression, being the only EH present in several sEH-lacking cell types.

Abstract

Microsomal and soluble epoxide hydrolase (mEH and sEH) fulfill apparently distinct roles: Whereas mEH detoxifies xenobiotics, sEH hydrolyzes fatty acid (FA) signaling molecules and is thus implicated in a variety of physiological functions. These epoxy FAs comprise epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and epoxy-octadecenoic acids (EpOMEs), which are formed by CYP epoxygenases from arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid, respectively, and then are hydrolyzed to their respective diols, the so-called DHETs and DiHOMEs. Although EETs and EpOMEs are also substrates for mEH, its role in lipid signaling is considered minor due to lower abundance and activity relative to sEH. Surprisingly, we found that in plasma from mEH KO mice, hydrolysis rates for 8,9-EET and 9,10-EpOME were reduced by 50% compared to WT plasma. This strongly suggests that mEH contributes substantially to the turnover of these FA epoxides-despite kinetic parameters being in favor of sEH. Given the crucial role of liver in controlling plasma diol levels, we next studied the capacity of sEH and mEH KO liver microsomes to synthesize DHETs with varying concentrations of AA (1-30 μM) and NADPH. mEH-generated DHET levels were similar to the ones generated by sEH, when AA concentrations were low (1 μM) or epoxygenase activity was curbed by modulating NADPH. With increasing AA concentrations sEH became more dominant and with 30 μM AA produced twice the level of DHETs compared to mEH. Immunohistochemistry of C57BL/6 liver slices further revealed that mEH expression was more widespread than sEH expression. mEH immunoreactivity was detected in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, and bile duct epithelial cells, while sEH immunoreactivity was confined to hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells. Finally, transcriptome analysis of WT, mEH KO, and sEH KO liver was carried out to discern transcriptional changes associated with the loss of EH genes along the CYP-epoxygenase-EH axis. We found several prominent dysregulations occurring in a parallel manner in both KO livers: (a) gene expression of Ephx1 (encoding for mEH protein) was increased 1.35-fold in sEH KO, while expression of Ephx2 (encoding for sEH protein) was increased 1.4-fold in mEH KO liver; (b) Cyp2c genes, encoding for the predominant epoxygenases in mouse liver, were mostly dysregulated in the same manner in both sEH and mEH KO mice, showing that loss of either EH has a similar impact. Taken together, mEH appears to play a leading role in the hydrolysis of 8,9-EET and 9,10-EpOME and also contributes to the hydrolysis of other FA epoxides. It probably profits from its high affinity for FA epoxides under non-saturating conditions and its close physical proximity to CYP epoxygenases, and compensates its lower abundance by a more widespread expression, being the only EH present in several sEH-lacking cell types.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology

05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2017
Deposited On:11 Jan 2018 15:11
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 10:11
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0340-5761
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-017-2060-4
PubMed ID:28975360

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