We prove that Gibbs measures of nonlinear Schrödinger equations arise as high-temperature limits of thermal states in many-body quantum mechanics. Our results hold for defocusing interactions in dimensions d=1,2,3. The many-body quantum thermal states that we consider are the grand canonical ensemble for d = 1 and an appropriate modification of the grand canonical ensemble for d=2,3. In dimensions d = 2, 3, the Gibbs measures are supported on singular distributions, and a renormalization of the chemical potential is necessary. On the many-body quantum side, the need for renormalization is manifested by a rapid growth of the number of particles. We relate the original many-body quantum problem to a renormalized version obtained by solving a counterterm problem. Our proof is based on ideas from field theory, using a perturbative expansion in the interaction, organized by using a diagrammatic representation, and on Borel resummation of the resulting series.