Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Steroid biomarkers and genetic studies reveal inactivating mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in patients with cortisone reductase deficiency


Lavery, G G; Walker, E A; Tiganescu, A; Ride, J P; Shackleton, C H L; Tomlinson, J W; Connell, J M C; Ray, D W; Biason-Lauber, A; Malunowicz, E M; Arlt, W; Stewart, P M (2008). Steroid biomarkers and genetic studies reveal inactivating mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in patients with cortisone reductase deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(10):3827-3832.

Abstract

CONTEXT: Cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD) is characterized by a failure to regenerate cortisol from cortisone via 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), resulting in increased cortisol clearance, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) and ACTH-mediated adrenal androgen excess. 11beta-HSD1 oxoreductase activity requires the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the endoplasmic reticulum. CRD manifests with hyperandrogenism resulting in hirsutism, oligo-amenorrhea, and infertility in females and premature pseudopuberty in males. Recent association studies have failed to corroborate findings that polymorphisms in the genes encoding H6PDH (R453Q) and 11beta-HSD1 (Intron 3 inserted adenine) interact to cause CRD. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to reevaluate the genetics and steroid biochemistry of patients with CRD. DESIGN: We analyzed 24-h urine collection for steroid biomarkers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and sequenced the HSD11B1 and H6PD genes in our CRD cohort. PATIENTS: Patients included four cases presenting with hyperandrogenism and biochemical features clearly indicative of CRD. RESULTS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified steroid biomarkers that correlated with CRD in each case. Three cases were identified as homozygous (R109AfsX3, Y316X, and G359D) and one case identified as compound heterozygous (c.960G-->A and D620fsX3) for mutations in H6PD. No mutations affecting enzyme activity were identified in the HSD11B1 gene. Expression and activity assays demonstrate loss of function for all reported H6PDH mutations. CONCLUSIONS: CRD is caused by inactivating mutations in the H6PD gene, rendering the 11beta-HSD1 enzyme unable to operate as an oxoreductase, preventing local glucocorticoid regeneration. These data highlight the importance of the redox control of cortisol metabolism and the 11beta-HSD1-H6PDH pathway in regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.

Abstract

CONTEXT: Cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD) is characterized by a failure to regenerate cortisol from cortisone via 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), resulting in increased cortisol clearance, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) and ACTH-mediated adrenal androgen excess. 11beta-HSD1 oxoreductase activity requires the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the endoplasmic reticulum. CRD manifests with hyperandrogenism resulting in hirsutism, oligo-amenorrhea, and infertility in females and premature pseudopuberty in males. Recent association studies have failed to corroborate findings that polymorphisms in the genes encoding H6PDH (R453Q) and 11beta-HSD1 (Intron 3 inserted adenine) interact to cause CRD. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to reevaluate the genetics and steroid biochemistry of patients with CRD. DESIGN: We analyzed 24-h urine collection for steroid biomarkers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and sequenced the HSD11B1 and H6PD genes in our CRD cohort. PATIENTS: Patients included four cases presenting with hyperandrogenism and biochemical features clearly indicative of CRD. RESULTS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified steroid biomarkers that correlated with CRD in each case. Three cases were identified as homozygous (R109AfsX3, Y316X, and G359D) and one case identified as compound heterozygous (c.960G-->A and D620fsX3) for mutations in H6PD. No mutations affecting enzyme activity were identified in the HSD11B1 gene. Expression and activity assays demonstrate loss of function for all reported H6PDH mutations. CONCLUSIONS: CRD is caused by inactivating mutations in the H6PD gene, rendering the 11beta-HSD1 enzyme unable to operate as an oxoreductase, preventing local glucocorticoid regeneration. These data highlight the importance of the redox control of cortisol metabolism and the 11beta-HSD1-H6PDH pathway in regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.

Statistics

Citations

46 citations in Web of Science®
47 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

2 downloads since deposited on 03 Mar 2009
0 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2008
Deposited On:03 Mar 2009 12:13
Last Modified:06 Dec 2017 18:26
Publisher:Endocrine Society
ISSN:0021-972X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-0743
PubMed ID:18628520

Download