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A meta-analysis of gender differences in character strengths and age, nation, and measure as moderators


Heintz, Sonja; Kramm, Christoph; Ruch, Willibald (2017). A meta-analysis of gender differences in character strengths and age, nation, and measure as moderators. Journal of Positive Psychology:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

The present meta-analysis investigates gender differences in the 24 VIA character strengths. Based on a literature search on quantitative studies that assessed character strengths, 65 samples consisting of both published and unpublished data were included (total N = 1,189,924). A random-effects model yielded significant gender differences for 17 of the 24 character strengths, although only four of these differences showed at least small effects: Females scored higher than males in appreciation of beauty and excellence, kindness, love, and gratitude. Thus, males and females were mostly similar in their character strengths. The size of the gender differences did not vary with nationality (i.e. the US, Switzerland, Germany, and Israel), while age and type of measure were significant moderators for 13-14 character strengths. The most pronounced differences emerged between children/ adolescents and the VIA-Youth in comparison to adults and the VIA-IS as well as the short measures.

Abstract

The present meta-analysis investigates gender differences in the 24 VIA character strengths. Based on a literature search on quantitative studies that assessed character strengths, 65 samples consisting of both published and unpublished data were included (total N = 1,189,924). A random-effects model yielded significant gender differences for 17 of the 24 character strengths, although only four of these differences showed at least small effects: Females scored higher than males in appreciation of beauty and excellence, kindness, love, and gratitude. Thus, males and females were mostly similar in their character strengths. The size of the gender differences did not vary with nationality (i.e. the US, Switzerland, Germany, and Israel), while age and type of measure were significant moderators for 13-14 character strengths. The most pronounced differences emerged between children/ adolescents and the VIA-Youth in comparison to adults and the VIA-IS as well as the short measures.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Uncontrolled Keywords:DoktoratPsych Erstautor
Date:2017
Deposited On:11 Jan 2018 16:25
Last Modified:11 Jan 2018 16:25
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
ISSN:1743-9760
Additional Information:This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in "Journal of Positive Psychology" on 18.12.2017, available online: http://wwww.tandfonline.com/10.1080/17439760.2017.1414297
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2017.1414297

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