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Low cortical iron and high entorhinal cortex volume promote cognitive functioning in the oldest-old


van Bergen, Jiri M G; Li, Xu; Quevenco, Frances C; Gietl, Anton F; Treyer, Valerie; Leh, Sandra E; Meyer, Rafael; Buck, Alfred; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Nitsch, Roger M; van Zijl, Peter C M; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G (2018). Low cortical iron and high entorhinal cortex volume promote cognitive functioning in the oldest-old. Neurobiology of Aging, 64:68-75.

Abstract

The aging brain is characterized by an increased presence of neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies. However, there is substantial variation regarding the relationship between an individual's pathological burden and resulting cognitive impairment. To identify correlates of preserved cognitive functioning at highest age, the relationship between β-amyloid plaque load, presence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD), iron-burden, and brain atrophy was investigated. Eighty cognitively unimpaired participants (44 oldest-old, aged 85-96 years; 36 younger-old, aged 55-80 years) were scanned by integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing beta regional amyloid plaque load (18F-flutemetamol), white matter hyperintensities as an indicator of SVCD (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-magnetic resonance imaging), and iron load (quantitative susceptibility mapping). For the oldest-old group, lower cortical volume, increased β-amyloid plaque load, prevalence of SVCD, and lower cognitive performance in the normal range were found. However, compared to normal-old, cortical iron burden was lower in the oldest-old. Moreover, only in the oldest-old, entorhinal cortex volume positively correlated with β-amyloid plaque load. Our data thus indicate that the co-occurrence of aging-associated neuropathologies with reduced quantitative susceptibility mapping measures of cortical iron load constitutes a lower vulnerability to cognitive loss.

Abstract

The aging brain is characterized by an increased presence of neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies. However, there is substantial variation regarding the relationship between an individual's pathological burden and resulting cognitive impairment. To identify correlates of preserved cognitive functioning at highest age, the relationship between β-amyloid plaque load, presence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD), iron-burden, and brain atrophy was investigated. Eighty cognitively unimpaired participants (44 oldest-old, aged 85-96 years; 36 younger-old, aged 55-80 years) were scanned by integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing beta regional amyloid plaque load (18F-flutemetamol), white matter hyperintensities as an indicator of SVCD (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-magnetic resonance imaging), and iron load (quantitative susceptibility mapping). For the oldest-old group, lower cortical volume, increased β-amyloid plaque load, prevalence of SVCD, and lower cognitive performance in the normal range were found. However, compared to normal-old, cortical iron burden was lower in the oldest-old. Moreover, only in the oldest-old, entorhinal cortex volume positively correlated with β-amyloid plaque load. Our data thus indicate that the co-occurrence of aging-associated neuropathologies with reduced quantitative susceptibility mapping measures of cortical iron load constitutes a lower vulnerability to cognitive loss.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nuclear Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute for Regenerative Medicine (IREM)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:29 Jan 2018 18:17
Last Modified:01 Mar 2018 01:56
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0197-4580
OA Status:Green
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.12.014
PubMed ID:29351872

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