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The influence of aluminium, steel and polyurethane shoeing systems and of the unshod hoof on the injury risk of a horse kick. An ex vivo experimental study


Sprick, M; Fürst, Anton; Baschnagel, F; Michel, S; Piskoty, Gabor; Hartnack, Sonja; Jackson, Michelle Amanada (2017). The influence of aluminium, steel and polyurethane shoeing systems and of the unshod hoof on the injury risk of a horse kick. An ex vivo experimental study. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 30(5):339-345.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the damage inflicted by an unshod hoof and by the various horseshoe materials (steel, aluminium and polyurethane) on the long bones of horses after a simulated kick.
METHODS: Sixty-four equine radii and tibiae were evaluated using a drop impact test setup. An impactor with a steel, aluminium, polyurethane, or hoof horn head was dropped onto prepared bones. An impactor velocity of 8 m/s was initially used with all four materials and then testing was repeated with a velocity of 12 m/s with the polyurethane and hoof horn heads. The impact process was analysed using a high-speed camera, and physical parameters, including peak contact force and impact duration, were calculated.
RESULTS: At 8 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 75% for steel and 81% for aluminium, whereas polyurethane and hoof horn did not damage the bones. At 12 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 25% for polyurethane and 12.5% for hoof horn. The peak contact force and impact duration differed significantly between 'hard materials' (aluminium and steel) and 'soft materials' (polyurethane and hoof horn).
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The observed bone injuries were similar to those seen in analogous experimental studies carried out previously and comparable to clinical fracture cases suggesting that the simulated kick was realistic. The probability of fracture was significantly higher for steel and aluminium than for polyurethane and hoof horn, which suggests that the horseshoe material has a significant influence on the risk of injury for humans or horses kicked by a horse.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the damage inflicted by an unshod hoof and by the various horseshoe materials (steel, aluminium and polyurethane) on the long bones of horses after a simulated kick.
METHODS: Sixty-four equine radii and tibiae were evaluated using a drop impact test setup. An impactor with a steel, aluminium, polyurethane, or hoof horn head was dropped onto prepared bones. An impactor velocity of 8 m/s was initially used with all four materials and then testing was repeated with a velocity of 12 m/s with the polyurethane and hoof horn heads. The impact process was analysed using a high-speed camera, and physical parameters, including peak contact force and impact duration, were calculated.
RESULTS: At 8 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 75% for steel and 81% for aluminium, whereas polyurethane and hoof horn did not damage the bones. At 12 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 25% for polyurethane and 12.5% for hoof horn. The peak contact force and impact duration differed significantly between 'hard materials' (aluminium and steel) and 'soft materials' (polyurethane and hoof horn).
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The observed bone injuries were similar to those seen in analogous experimental studies carried out previously and comparable to clinical fracture cases suggesting that the simulated kick was realistic. The probability of fracture was significantly higher for steel and aluminium than for polyurethane and hoof horn, which suggests that the horseshoe material has a significant influence on the risk of injury for humans or horses kicked by a horse.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Chair in Veterinary Epidemiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:horses, shoeing, impact load, kick injury
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:31 Jan 2018 10:28
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 11:00
Publisher:Schattauer
ISSN:0932-0814
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3415/VCOT-17-01-0003
PubMed ID:28763524

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