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Epilepsy after cerebral infection: review of the literature and the potential for surgery


Ramantani, Georgia; Holthausen, Hans (2017). Epilepsy after cerebral infection: review of the literature and the potential for surgery. Epileptic Disorders, 19(2):117-136.

Abstract

The risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of cerebral infection survivors is 7-8% in developed countries, rising to considerably higher rates in resource-poor countries. The main risk factors for epilepsy after cerebral infection, besides acute seizures, are infection-associated brain lesions and status epilepticus during the acute phase. Despite the high prevalence of pharmacoresistant epilepsies after cerebral infections, especially in patients with MRI-identifiable lesions, only a small minority undergoes epilepsy surgery. However, excellent surgical candidates are particularly those with a history of meningitis or encephalitis in early childhood, hippocampal sclerosis on MRI, as well as a history, seizure semiology, and EEG-findings compatible with the diagnosis of a mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome. More challenging are patients with neocortical/extratemporal lobe epilepsies post cerebral infection. Finally, patients with a severe hemispheric injury with contralateral hemiparesis are candidates for hemispherectomy/hemispherotomy. This review attempts to shed some light on this frequent cause of symptomatic focal epilepsy, with an emphasis on the chances offered by epilepsy surgery.

Abstract

The risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of cerebral infection survivors is 7-8% in developed countries, rising to considerably higher rates in resource-poor countries. The main risk factors for epilepsy after cerebral infection, besides acute seizures, are infection-associated brain lesions and status epilepticus during the acute phase. Despite the high prevalence of pharmacoresistant epilepsies after cerebral infections, especially in patients with MRI-identifiable lesions, only a small minority undergoes epilepsy surgery. However, excellent surgical candidates are particularly those with a history of meningitis or encephalitis in early childhood, hippocampal sclerosis on MRI, as well as a history, seizure semiology, and EEG-findings compatible with the diagnosis of a mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome. More challenging are patients with neocortical/extratemporal lobe epilepsies post cerebral infection. Finally, patients with a severe hemispheric injury with contralateral hemiparesis are candidates for hemispherectomy/hemispherotomy. This review attempts to shed some light on this frequent cause of symptomatic focal epilepsy, with an emphasis on the chances offered by epilepsy surgery.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 June 2017
Deposited On:14 Feb 2018 14:41
Last Modified:19 Mar 2018 10:22
Publisher:John Libbey Eurotext
ISSN:1294-9361
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1684/epd.2017.0916
PubMed ID:28637636

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