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Pediatric lung transplantation


Benden, Christian (2017). Pediatric lung transplantation. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 9(8):2675-2683.

Abstract

Pediatric lung transplantation has been undertaken since the 1980s, and it is today considered an accepted therapy option in carefully selected children with end-stage pulmonary diseases, providing carefully selected children a net survival benefit and improved health-related quality of life. Nowadays, >100 pediatric lung transplants are done worldwide every year. Here, specific pediatric aspects of lung transplantation are reviewed such as the surgical challenge, effects of immunosuppression on the developing pediatric immune system, and typical infections of childhood, as it is vital to comprehend that children undergoing lung transplants present a real challenge as children are not 'just small adults'. Further, an update on the management of the pediatric lung transplant patient is provided in this review, and future challenges outlined. Indications for lung transplantation in children are different compared to adults, the most common being cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the primary diagnoses leading to pediatric lung transplantation vary considerably by age group. Furthermore, there are regional differences regarding the primary indication for lung transplantation in children. Overall, early referral, careful patient selection and appropriate timing of listing are crucial to achieve real survival benefit. Although allograft function is to be preserved, immunosuppressant-related side effects are common in children post-transplantation. Strategies need to be put into practice to reduce drug-related side effects through careful therapeutic drug monitoring and lowering of target levels of immunosuppression, to avoid acute-reversible and chronic-irreversible renal damage. Instead of a "one fits all approach", tailored immunosuppression and a personalized therapy is to be advocated, particularly in children. Further, infectious complications are a common in children of all ages, accounting for almost 50% of death in the first year post-transplantation. However, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains the major obstacle for improved long-term survival.

Abstract

Pediatric lung transplantation has been undertaken since the 1980s, and it is today considered an accepted therapy option in carefully selected children with end-stage pulmonary diseases, providing carefully selected children a net survival benefit and improved health-related quality of life. Nowadays, >100 pediatric lung transplants are done worldwide every year. Here, specific pediatric aspects of lung transplantation are reviewed such as the surgical challenge, effects of immunosuppression on the developing pediatric immune system, and typical infections of childhood, as it is vital to comprehend that children undergoing lung transplants present a real challenge as children are not 'just small adults'. Further, an update on the management of the pediatric lung transplant patient is provided in this review, and future challenges outlined. Indications for lung transplantation in children are different compared to adults, the most common being cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the primary diagnoses leading to pediatric lung transplantation vary considerably by age group. Furthermore, there are regional differences regarding the primary indication for lung transplantation in children. Overall, early referral, careful patient selection and appropriate timing of listing are crucial to achieve real survival benefit. Although allograft function is to be preserved, immunosuppressant-related side effects are common in children post-transplantation. Strategies need to be put into practice to reduce drug-related side effects through careful therapeutic drug monitoring and lowering of target levels of immunosuppression, to avoid acute-reversible and chronic-irreversible renal damage. Instead of a "one fits all approach", tailored immunosuppression and a personalized therapy is to be advocated, particularly in children. Further, infectious complications are a common in children of all ages, accounting for almost 50% of death in the first year post-transplantation. However, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains the major obstacle for improved long-term survival.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Pneumology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:August 2017
Deposited On:15 Feb 2018 08:25
Last Modified:19 Feb 2018 11:07
Publisher:Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company
ISSN:2072-1439
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2017.07.84
PubMed ID:28932575

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