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Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiation


Oshima, Masaya; Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Diedisheim, Marc; Petzold, Antje; Cattan, Pierre; Bugliani, Marco; Marchetti, Piero; Choudhary, Pratik; Huang, Guo-Cai; Bornstein, Stefan R; Solimena, Michele; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Scharfmann, Raphael (2018). Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiation. Journal of clinical investigation insight, 3(3):e97732.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by an autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Environmental factors such as viruses play an important role in the onset of T1D and interact with predisposing genes. Recent data suggest that viral infection of human islets leads to a decrease in insulin production rather than β cell death, suggesting loss of β cell identity. We undertook this study to examine whether viral infection could induce human β cell dedifferentiation. Using the functional human β cell line EndoC-βH1, we demonstrate that polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA that mimics a byproduct of viral replication, induces a decrease in β cell-specific gene expression. In parallel with this loss, the expression of progenitor-like genes such as SOX9 was activated following PolyI:C treatment or enteroviral infection. SOX9 was induced by the NF-κB pathway and also in a paracrine non-cell-autonomous fashion through the secretion of IFN-α. Lastly, we identified SOX9 targets in human β cells as potentially new markers of dedifferentiation in T1D. These findings reveal that inflammatory signaling has clear implications in human β cell dedifferentiation.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by an autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Environmental factors such as viruses play an important role in the onset of T1D and interact with predisposing genes. Recent data suggest that viral infection of human islets leads to a decrease in insulin production rather than β cell death, suggesting loss of β cell identity. We undertook this study to examine whether viral infection could induce human β cell dedifferentiation. Using the functional human β cell line EndoC-βH1, we demonstrate that polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA that mimics a byproduct of viral replication, induces a decrease in β cell-specific gene expression. In parallel with this loss, the expression of progenitor-like genes such as SOX9 was activated following PolyI:C treatment or enteroviral infection. SOX9 was induced by the NF-κB pathway and also in a paracrine non-cell-autonomous fashion through the secretion of IFN-α. Lastly, we identified SOX9 targets in human β cells as potentially new markers of dedifferentiation in T1D. These findings reveal that inflammatory signaling has clear implications in human β cell dedifferentiation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:8 February 2018
Deposited On:09 Mar 2018 09:45
Last Modified:01 Apr 2018 01:23
Publisher:American Society for Clinical Investigation
ISSN:2379-3708
OA Status:Green
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.97732
PubMed ID:29415896

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