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Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Iron Deficiency: CLEVER Trial Study Design and Protocol


Schindler, Christoph; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Hanefeld, Markolf; Schatz, Ulrike; Köhler, Carsta; Grüneberg, Martin; Tschöpe, Diethelm; Blüher, Matthias; Hasslacher, Christoph; Bornstein, Stefan R (2018). Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Iron Deficiency: CLEVER Trial Study Design and Protocol. Diabetes Therapy, 9(1):37-47.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION HbA1c is the gold standard for glycemic control in pre-diabetes and diabetes. However, its validity has been questioned, especially in the presence of imbalanced iron homeostasis. The CLEVER trial aims to evaluate the relationship between iron deficiency and HbA1c (a biomarker for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of type 2 diabetes) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial.
METHODS The CLEVER (intravenous ferric CarboxymaLtosE for improVement of mEtabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients with iRon deficiency) trial is a randomized, single-blind, proof-of-concept study with two treatment arms. 140 men and women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and iron deficiency will receive either placebo or ferric carboxymaltose (500 or 1000 mg) as intravenous infusions. The primary outcome measure is the change in HbA1c level between baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints include change of iron status and metabolic markers as well as treatment safety and tolerability. Furthermore, the potential clinical improvement in quality of life and the reliability of HbA1c measurement in patients with type 2 diabetes and iron deficiency will be investigated.
RESULTS Both excessive iron and iron deficiency are associated with metabolic disorders; excessive iron is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, whereas iron deficiency is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that iron increases insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. CLEVER is the first study to investigate the hypothesis that intravenous substitution with ferric carboxymaltose reduces HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and iron deficiency, thereby improving metabolic status and quality of life.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION HbA1c is the gold standard for glycemic control in pre-diabetes and diabetes. However, its validity has been questioned, especially in the presence of imbalanced iron homeostasis. The CLEVER trial aims to evaluate the relationship between iron deficiency and HbA1c (a biomarker for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of type 2 diabetes) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial.
METHODS The CLEVER (intravenous ferric CarboxymaLtosE for improVement of mEtabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients with iRon deficiency) trial is a randomized, single-blind, proof-of-concept study with two treatment arms. 140 men and women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and iron deficiency will receive either placebo or ferric carboxymaltose (500 or 1000 mg) as intravenous infusions. The primary outcome measure is the change in HbA1c level between baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints include change of iron status and metabolic markers as well as treatment safety and tolerability. Furthermore, the potential clinical improvement in quality of life and the reliability of HbA1c measurement in patients with type 2 diabetes and iron deficiency will be investigated.
RESULTS Both excessive iron and iron deficiency are associated with metabolic disorders; excessive iron is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, whereas iron deficiency is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that iron increases insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. CLEVER is the first study to investigate the hypothesis that intravenous substitution with ferric carboxymaltose reduces HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and iron deficiency, thereby improving metabolic status and quality of life.

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Item Type:Journal Article, not_refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:February 2018
Deposited On:09 Mar 2018 11:13
Last Modified:01 Apr 2018 01:23
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1869-6961
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-017-0330-z
PubMed ID:29134606

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