Dogs are definitive hosts for the lungworms Crenosoma vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Intermediate hosts are gasteropoda (Mollusca). In the past, lungworms in dogs were rarely identified in the Czech Republic and in neighbouring countries. A total of 253 dogs were sampled for faecal analysis performed by the Baermann method for isolation of first stage larvae (L1) of lungworms. A total of 193 serum samples were collected and analysed by ELISA for the detection of a circulating antigen and specific antibodies against A. vasorum. All dog owners were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Nine dogs (4.7%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 2.2–8.7%) were positive for the A. vasorum circulating antigen, seven dogs (3.6%, CI: 1.5–7.3%) had specific antibodies against A. vasorum; of these, three animals (1.6%, CI: 0.3–4.5%) were positive for both ELISAs. Most of them were under the age of three years. Only three of 13 seropositive dogs were not healthy, namely, in one dog vomitus was observed and two dogs were pyretic. Faecal samples of 5 dogs were positive for C. vulpis L1 (2.0%, CI: 0.6–4.6%). Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 were found in the faecal sample of one dog (0.4%, CI: 0.01–2.2%). This study illustrates the wide-spread occurrence of lungworms in the Czech Republic. Disease awareness of lungworms among animal owners and veterinarians should be implemented.