The recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury (SCI) is of major importance for patients and caregivers. We recently developed prediction models of bladder outcomes (defined as the capacity of storing the urine and emptying completely the bladder) 1 year after a SCI of traumatic etiology and investigated if these models would also be applicable to patients with ischemic SCI.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
From the European multicenter study about spinal cord injury (EMSCI), we extracted data of all ischemic SCI patients with available neurological and functional data (according to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury, ISNCSCI, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure, SCIM) within 40 days and bladder outcomes 1 year after ischemia. The model relies on three predictors: strength of the legs, the presence of sensation in the S3 dermatome, and the part of the SCIM assessing breathing and bladder and bowel control. A simplified model relying on leg strength only was also tested. Bladder outcomes were evaluated according to the score of item six of SCIM.
In total 85 patients (56 males (66%), mean age 55 years) were included. Twenty-three patients (27%) showed complete bladder function recovery one year after ischemia. Both models showed a very good predictive power: the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (aROC) of the two models was 0.825 and 0.822, respectively.
Comparable to acute traumatic SCI, also in ischemic SCI the outcome of full bladder function recovery can be predicted by clinical scores, and prediction models of bladder outcomes may be applicable in clinical trials.