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Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication


Romano, Lucia; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Schift, Helmut; Stampanoni, Marco; Jefimovs, Konstantins (2017). Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. B, Nanotechnology & Microelectronics, 35(6):06G302.

Abstract

Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast interferometry has a high application impact in materials science and medicine for imaging of weakly absorbing (low Z) materials and soft tissues. For absorbing gratings, casting of highly X-ray absorbing metals, such as Au and Pb alloys, has proven to be a viable way to generate large area periodic high aspect ratio microstructures. In this paper, the authors review the grating fabrication strategy with a special focus on a novel approach of casting low temperature melting alloys (Au-Sn and Pb-based alloys) into Si grating templates using hot embossing. This process, similar to nanoimprint lithography, requires particular adjusting efforts of process parameters as a function of the metal alloy and the grating feature size. The transition between the solid and liquid state depends on the alloy phase diagram, the applied pressure can damage the high aspect ratio Si lamellas, and the microstructure of the solid metal can affect the grating structure. The authors demonstrate that metal casting by hot embossing can be used to fabricate gratings on a large area (up to 70 × 70 mm2) with an aspect ratio of up to 50:1 and a pitch in the range of 1–20 μm.

Abstract

Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast interferometry has a high application impact in materials science and medicine for imaging of weakly absorbing (low Z) materials and soft tissues. For absorbing gratings, casting of highly X-ray absorbing metals, such as Au and Pb alloys, has proven to be a viable way to generate large area periodic high aspect ratio microstructures. In this paper, the authors review the grating fabrication strategy with a special focus on a novel approach of casting low temperature melting alloys (Au-Sn and Pb-based alloys) into Si grating templates using hot embossing. This process, similar to nanoimprint lithography, requires particular adjusting efforts of process parameters as a function of the metal alloy and the grating feature size. The transition between the solid and liquid state depends on the alloy phase diagram, the applied pressure can damage the high aspect ratio Si lamellas, and the microstructure of the solid metal can affect the grating structure. The authors demonstrate that metal casting by hot embossing can be used to fabricate gratings on a large area (up to 70 × 70 mm2) with an aspect ratio of up to 50:1 and a pitch in the range of 1–20 μm.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Biomedical Engineering
Dewey Decimal Classification:170 Ethics
610 Medicine & health
Date:2017
Deposited On:22 Mar 2018 11:19
Last Modified:13 Apr 2018 11:44
Publisher:American Institute of Physics
ISSN:2166-2746
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1116/1.4991807

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Embargo till: 2018-07-01