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Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 regulates fibroblast activation in systemic sclerosis


Zhang, Yun; Pötter, Sebastian; Chen, Chih-Wei; Liang, Ruifang; Gelse, Kolja; Ludolph, Ingo; Horch, Raymund E; Distler, Oliver; Schett, Georg; Distler, Jörg H W; Dees, Clara (2018). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 regulates fibroblast activation in systemic sclerosis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 77(5):744-751.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) transfers negatively charged ADP-ribose units to target proteins. This modification can have pronounced regulatory effects on target proteins. Recent studies showed that PARP-1 can poly(ADP-ribosyl)ate (PARylate) Smad proteins. However, the role of PARP-1 in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) has not been investigated.
METHODS: The expression of PARP-1 was determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. DNA methylation was analysed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation assays. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling was assessed using reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and target gene analysis. The effect of PARP-1 inactivation was investigated in bleomycin-induced and topoisomerase-induced fibrosis as well as in tight-skin-1 (Tsk-1) mice.
RESULTS: The expression of PARP-1 was decreased in patients with SSc, particularly in fibroblasts. The promoter ofwas hypermethylated in SSc fibroblasts and in TGFβ-stimulated normal fibroblasts. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) reduced the promoter methylation and reactivated the expression of PARP-1. Inactivation of PARP-1 promoted accumulation of phosphorylated Smad3, enhanced Smad-dependent transcription and upregulated the expression of TGFβ/Smad target genes. Inhibition of PARP-1 enhanced the effect of TGFβ on collagen release and myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and exacerbated experimental fibrosis in vivo. PARP-1 deficiency induced a more severe fibrotic response to bleomycin with increased dermal thickening, hydroxyproline content and myofibroblast counts. Inhibition of PARylation also exacerbated fibrosis in Tsk-1 mice and in mice with topoisomerase-induced fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: PARP-1 negatively regulates canonical TGFβ signalling in experimental skin fibrosis. The downregulation of PARP-1 in SSc fibroblasts may thus directly contribute to hyperactive TGFβ signalling and to persistent fibroblast activation in SSc.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) transfers negatively charged ADP-ribose units to target proteins. This modification can have pronounced regulatory effects on target proteins. Recent studies showed that PARP-1 can poly(ADP-ribosyl)ate (PARylate) Smad proteins. However, the role of PARP-1 in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) has not been investigated.
METHODS: The expression of PARP-1 was determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. DNA methylation was analysed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation assays. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling was assessed using reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and target gene analysis. The effect of PARP-1 inactivation was investigated in bleomycin-induced and topoisomerase-induced fibrosis as well as in tight-skin-1 (Tsk-1) mice.
RESULTS: The expression of PARP-1 was decreased in patients with SSc, particularly in fibroblasts. The promoter ofwas hypermethylated in SSc fibroblasts and in TGFβ-stimulated normal fibroblasts. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) reduced the promoter methylation and reactivated the expression of PARP-1. Inactivation of PARP-1 promoted accumulation of phosphorylated Smad3, enhanced Smad-dependent transcription and upregulated the expression of TGFβ/Smad target genes. Inhibition of PARP-1 enhanced the effect of TGFβ on collagen release and myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and exacerbated experimental fibrosis in vivo. PARP-1 deficiency induced a more severe fibrotic response to bleomycin with increased dermal thickening, hydroxyproline content and myofibroblast counts. Inhibition of PARylation also exacerbated fibrosis in Tsk-1 mice and in mice with topoisomerase-induced fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: PARP-1 negatively regulates canonical TGFβ signalling in experimental skin fibrosis. The downregulation of PARP-1 in SSc fibroblasts may thus directly contribute to hyperactive TGFβ signalling and to persistent fibroblast activation in SSc.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Rheumatology Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:3 February 2018
Deposited On:27 Mar 2018 18:44
Last Modified:13 Apr 2018 11:48
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN:0003-4967
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212265
PubMed ID:29431122

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