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Is rivaroxaban associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients with traumatic head injuries? A retrospective cohort study comparing rivaroxaban, no anticoagulation, and phenprocoumon


Jentzsch, Thorsten; Moos, Rudolf M; Neuhaus, Valentin; Hussein, Kariem; Farei-Campagna, Jan; Seifert, Burkhardt; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Werner, Clément M L; Osterhoff, Georg (2018). Is rivaroxaban associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients with traumatic head injuries? A retrospective cohort study comparing rivaroxaban, no anticoagulation, and phenprocoumon. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 169:116-120.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES The use of new anticoagulants potentially carries the risk of increased intracranial bleeding, but there is a lack of evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the morbidity and mortality differs in head trauma patients depending on the type of anticoagulation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2014. Based on sex, age, and Glasgow-Coma Scale (GCS), patients that received rivaroxaban were matched to two control groups, one that received no anticoagulant and another one that received phenprocoumon. The primary outcome was mortality. Among others, secondary outcome variables were the length of stay (LOS) at the hospital and presence of an intracranial injury.
RESULTS Sixty-nine patients (23 patients per group) were analyzed. The characteristics of patients did not differ significantly across groups. There were no significant differences between groups for the primary and secondary outcomes. Two patients died in the rivaroxaban group (one of them likely due to head trauma), while one patient died in the phenprocoumon group (likely not due to head trauma), and no patient died in the no anticoagulatoin group (p = 0.36). The LOS at the hospital was similar (5.0, 4.0, and 5.0 days; p = 0.94). An intracranial injury was observed in a similar number of patients in all groups (n = 11, n = 10, and n = 8; p = 0.75).
CONCLUSION Although limited in size, this study did not observe significant outcome differences in patients with traumatic head injuries, who received rivaroxaban, no anticoagulant or phenprocoumon. Although not significant, the only death likely due to head trauma in the study occurred in the rivaroxaban group. Larger studies are needed before clinical application of these findings.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES The use of new anticoagulants potentially carries the risk of increased intracranial bleeding, but there is a lack of evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the morbidity and mortality differs in head trauma patients depending on the type of anticoagulation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2014. Based on sex, age, and Glasgow-Coma Scale (GCS), patients that received rivaroxaban were matched to two control groups, one that received no anticoagulant and another one that received phenprocoumon. The primary outcome was mortality. Among others, secondary outcome variables were the length of stay (LOS) at the hospital and presence of an intracranial injury.
RESULTS Sixty-nine patients (23 patients per group) were analyzed. The characteristics of patients did not differ significantly across groups. There were no significant differences between groups for the primary and secondary outcomes. Two patients died in the rivaroxaban group (one of them likely due to head trauma), while one patient died in the phenprocoumon group (likely not due to head trauma), and no patient died in the no anticoagulatoin group (p = 0.36). The LOS at the hospital was similar (5.0, 4.0, and 5.0 days; p = 0.94). An intracranial injury was observed in a similar number of patients in all groups (n = 11, n = 10, and n = 8; p = 0.75).
CONCLUSION Although limited in size, this study did not observe significant outcome differences in patients with traumatic head injuries, who received rivaroxaban, no anticoagulant or phenprocoumon. Although not significant, the only death likely due to head trauma in the study occurred in the rivaroxaban group. Larger studies are needed before clinical application of these findings.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Department of Trauma Surgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:3 April 2018
Deposited On:19 Apr 2018 08:10
Last Modified:03 May 2018 13:37
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0303-8467
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.04.001
PubMed ID:29655012

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