Loose bodies are a rare cause of temporomandibular joint symptoms. Their main source is synovial chondromatosis. We report on clinical findings, diagnostic methods, treatment choices and outcome following the removal of loose bodies in 10 patients. Seven patients were evaluated and treated by means of arthroscopy, while in three patients open arthrotomy was performed. In five patients, no diagnostic imaging technique had demonstrated the presence of loose bodies prior to arthroscopy. In six patients, histology revealed synovial chondromatosis. In four patients, osteochondral fragments alone were found. Until now, the recommended treatment of choice for the removal of all loose bodies and of affected synovial tissue required open arthrotomy. We conclude that the advantages of arthroscopy consist in locating loose bodies that are not detectable radiologically and in reducing operative trauma.