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Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine after racemic ketamine or S-ketamine administration in Shetland ponies sedated with xylazine


Larenza, M P; Knobloch, M; Landoni, M F; Levionnois, O L; Kronen, Peter W; Theurillat, R; Schatzmann, U; Thormann, W (2008). Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine after racemic ketamine or S-ketamine administration in Shetland ponies sedated with xylazine. Veterinary Journal, 177(3):432-435.

Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine enantiomers after administration of intravenous (IV) racemic ketamine (R-/S-ketamine; 2.2 mg/kg) or S-ketamine (1.1 mg/kg) to five ponies sedated with IV xylazine (1.1 mg/kg) were compared. The time intervals to assume sternal and standing positions were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 13 min after ketamine administration. Arterial blood gases were evaluated 5 min after ketamine injection. Plasma concentrations of ketamine and norketamine enantiomers were determined by capillary electrophoresis and were evaluated by non-linear least square regression analysis applying a monocompartmental model. The first-order elimination rate constant was significantly higher and elimination half-life and mean residence time were lower for S-ketamine after S-ketamine compared to R-/S-ketamine administration. The maximum concentration of S-norketamine was higher after S-ketamine administration. Time to standing position was significantly diminished after S-ketamine compared to R-/S-ketamine. Blood gases showed low-degree hypoxaemia and hypercarbia.

Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine enantiomers after administration of intravenous (IV) racemic ketamine (R-/S-ketamine; 2.2 mg/kg) or S-ketamine (1.1 mg/kg) to five ponies sedated with IV xylazine (1.1 mg/kg) were compared. The time intervals to assume sternal and standing positions were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 13 min after ketamine administration. Arterial blood gases were evaluated 5 min after ketamine injection. Plasma concentrations of ketamine and norketamine enantiomers were determined by capillary electrophoresis and were evaluated by non-linear least square regression analysis applying a monocompartmental model. The first-order elimination rate constant was significantly higher and elimination half-life and mean residence time were lower for S-ketamine after S-ketamine compared to R-/S-ketamine administration. The maximum concentration of S-norketamine was higher after S-ketamine administration. Time to standing position was significantly diminished after S-ketamine compared to R-/S-ketamine. Blood gases showed low-degree hypoxaemia and hypercarbia.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:Ketamine enantiomers; Norketamine; Pharmacokinetics; Xylazine; Capillary electrophoresis
Language:English
Date:September 2008
Deposited On:20 Feb 2009 16:03
Last Modified:21 Nov 2017 14:02
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1090-0233
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.05.005
PubMed ID:17604192

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