Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Interference of mismatch and base excision repair during the processing of adjacent U/G mispairs may play a key role in somatic hypermutation


Schanz, S; Castor, D; Fischer, F; Jiricny, J (2009). Interference of mismatch and base excision repair during the processing of adjacent U/G mispairs may play a key role in somatic hypermutation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 106(14):5593-5598.

Abstract

In eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR), degradation of the error-containing strand initiates at nicks or gaps that can be up to a kilobase away from the mispair. These discontinuities may be the ends of Okazaki fragments or the 3'-termini of the leading strands during replication, whereas the termini of invading strands may fulfill this role during recombination. Here we show that, in extracts of human cells, MMR can initiate also at sites of ongoing base excision repair. Although unlikely under normal circumstances, this situation may arise in vivo during somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination of Ig genes, where activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) generates multiple U/G mismatches in the variable or switch regions. Uracil should normally be excised by base excision repair (BER), but we show here that MMR proteins activated by a nearby mismatch interfere with uracil processing to generate long single-stranded gaps. We postulate that, in a subset of the repair events, filling-in of the MMR-generated gaps might be catalyzed by the error-prone polymerase-eta, rather than by the high-fidelity polymerase-delta. Because polymerase-eta has a propensity to misinsertions opposite adenine residues, the above mechanism would help explain why SHM affects not only C/G, but also A/T base pairs.

Abstract

In eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR), degradation of the error-containing strand initiates at nicks or gaps that can be up to a kilobase away from the mispair. These discontinuities may be the ends of Okazaki fragments or the 3'-termini of the leading strands during replication, whereas the termini of invading strands may fulfill this role during recombination. Here we show that, in extracts of human cells, MMR can initiate also at sites of ongoing base excision repair. Although unlikely under normal circumstances, this situation may arise in vivo during somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination of Ig genes, where activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) generates multiple U/G mismatches in the variable or switch regions. Uracil should normally be excised by base excision repair (BER), but we show here that MMR proteins activated by a nearby mismatch interfere with uracil processing to generate long single-stranded gaps. We postulate that, in a subset of the repair events, filling-in of the MMR-generated gaps might be catalyzed by the error-prone polymerase-eta, rather than by the high-fidelity polymerase-delta. Because polymerase-eta has a propensity to misinsertions opposite adenine residues, the above mechanism would help explain why SHM affects not only C/G, but also A/T base pairs.

Statistics

Citations

46 citations in Web of Science®
46 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

4 downloads since deposited on 26 Mar 2009
0 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:7 April 2009
Deposited On:26 Mar 2009 10:20
Last Modified:06 Dec 2017 18:45
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
Additional Information:Copyright: National Academy of Sciences USA
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0901726106
PubMed ID:19307563

Download