Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples from farming and non-farming families - the PASTURE study


Gehring, U; Spithoven, J; Schmid, S; Bitter, S; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Dalphin, J C; Hyvärinen, A; Pekkanen, J; Riedler, J; Weiland, S K; Büchele, G; von Mutius, E; Vuitton, D A; Brunekreef, B (2008). Endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples from farming and non-farming families - the PASTURE study. Environment international, 34(8):1132-1136.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Children from farming families have less allergies than their peers. Consumption of farm milk or unpasteurized milk has been shown to explain (part of) the farming effect or protect against allergies independent of farming status. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the protective effect of farm milk consumption can be explained by higher levels of bacterial endotoxin in milk. METHODS: We measured endotoxin in approximately 400 farm milk and shop milk samples from farming and non-farming families, respectively, with the kinetic chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test and compared endotoxin levels between groups defined by farming status and type of milk (farm milk/shop milk). RESULTS: Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in milk samples from non-farming families compared to farming families [adjusted geometric means ratio (95% confidence interval)=2.61 (1.53-4.43)]. No significant difference in endotoxin levels was found between shop milk and farm milk samples [adjusted geometric means ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.56 (0.94-2.58)]. The difference between farming and non-farming families could be explained completely for farm milk and partially for shop milk by storage conditions and temperature during transportation to the fieldworker's home. CONCLUSION: The farming effect and the effect of farm milk consumption cannot be explained by higher levels of endotoxin in milk from farmers and farm milk, respectively.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Children from farming families have less allergies than their peers. Consumption of farm milk or unpasteurized milk has been shown to explain (part of) the farming effect or protect against allergies independent of farming status. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the protective effect of farm milk consumption can be explained by higher levels of bacterial endotoxin in milk. METHODS: We measured endotoxin in approximately 400 farm milk and shop milk samples from farming and non-farming families, respectively, with the kinetic chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test and compared endotoxin levels between groups defined by farming status and type of milk (farm milk/shop milk). RESULTS: Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in milk samples from non-farming families compared to farming families [adjusted geometric means ratio (95% confidence interval)=2.61 (1.53-4.43)]. No significant difference in endotoxin levels was found between shop milk and farm milk samples [adjusted geometric means ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.56 (0.94-2.58)]. The difference between farming and non-farming families could be explained completely for farm milk and partially for shop milk by storage conditions and temperature during transportation to the fieldworker's home. CONCLUSION: The farming effect and the effect of farm milk consumption cannot be explained by higher levels of endotoxin in milk from farmers and farm milk, respectively.

Statistics

Citations

16 citations in Web of Science®
18 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

3 downloads since deposited on 03 Mar 2009
0 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2008
Deposited On:03 Mar 2009 11:57
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:07
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0160-4120
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.04.003
PubMed ID:18502510

Download

Preview Icon on Download
Filetype: PDF - Registered users only
Size: 1MB
View at publisher