PURPOSE: Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) frequently develop lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). To elucidate the underlying pathomechanisms we focused on altered cellular communication between detrusor cells. METHODS: Bladder biopsies were collected from eight BPH patients with compensated BOO and from eight non-obstructed patients. Detrusor areas were separated by laser capture microdissection microscopy, and extracted RNA was subjected to quantitative RT-PCR for connexin43 and connexin45. Furthermore, localization of connexin45 and lysosome membrane associated protein 1 was studied by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found the human detrusor to express connexin45 rather than connexin43. Compared to controls, connexin45 expression was not significantly changed in detrusors of obstructed patients. However, connexin45 protein patterns were focally altered in obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to provide evidence that connexin45-coupling of detrusor cells may be regionally impaired in patients with BOO due to BPH. The altered connexin45 coupling may contribute to LUTS.