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Comparative floral morphology and anatomy of Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae (Sapindales), with a special focus on gynoecium structure and evolution


Bachelier, J B; Endress, P K (2009). Comparative floral morphology and anatomy of Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae (Sapindales), with a special focus on gynoecium structure and evolution. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 159(4):499-571.

Abstract

Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae are traditionally distinguished by the number of ovules (1 vs. 2) per locule and the
direction of ovule curvature (syntropous vs. antitropous). Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that
these families are sister groups in Sapindales after having been separated in different orders for a long time. We
present a comparative morphological study of the flower structure in both families. The major clades, usually
supported in molecular phylogenetic analyses, are well supported by floral structure. In Anacardiaceae, there is a
tendency to gynoecium reduction to a single fertile carpel (particularly in Anacardioideae). The single ovule has a
long and unusually differentiated funicle, which connects with the stylar pollen tube transmitting tract in all
representatives studied. In Anacardiaceae–Spondiadoideae, there is a tendency to form an extensive synascidiate
zone, with a massive remnant of the floral apex in the centre; these features are also present in Beiselia
(Burseraceae) and Kirkiaceae (sister to Anacardiaceae plus Burseraceae) and may represent a synapomorphy or
apomorphic tendency for the three families. In core Burseraceae, gynoecium structure is much less diverse than
in Anacardiaceae and has probably retained more plesiomorphies. Differences in proportions of parts of the ovules
in Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae are linked with the different direction of ovule curvature.

Abstract

Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae are traditionally distinguished by the number of ovules (1 vs. 2) per locule and the
direction of ovule curvature (syntropous vs. antitropous). Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that
these families are sister groups in Sapindales after having been separated in different orders for a long time. We
present a comparative morphological study of the flower structure in both families. The major clades, usually
supported in molecular phylogenetic analyses, are well supported by floral structure. In Anacardiaceae, there is a
tendency to gynoecium reduction to a single fertile carpel (particularly in Anacardioideae). The single ovule has a
long and unusually differentiated funicle, which connects with the stylar pollen tube transmitting tract in all
representatives studied. In Anacardiaceae–Spondiadoideae, there is a tendency to form an extensive synascidiate
zone, with a massive remnant of the floral apex in the centre; these features are also present in Beiselia
(Burseraceae) and Kirkiaceae (sister to Anacardiaceae plus Burseraceae) and may represent a synapomorphy or
apomorphic tendency for the three families. In core Burseraceae, gynoecium structure is much less diverse than
in Anacardiaceae and has probably retained more plesiomorphies. Differences in proportions of parts of the ovules
in Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae are linked with the different direction of ovule curvature.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:April 2009
Deposited On:03 Jun 2009 05:25
Last Modified:06 Dec 2017 19:42
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0024-4074
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00959.x

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